## AEE 528 Instructional Design and Course Development in Agricultural Education

 Class 7 Instructional Strategies Reading Designing Effective Instructionby Morrison, Ross, & Kemp, chapter 7 Introduction Many textbooks and computer-based instruction programs take a single approach to learning. The student reads several pages or computer screens and then answers a few questions. This strategy is based on a concept referred to as mathemagenic behavior first described by Rothkopf. Research on answering these questions suggests they are good for memorizing specific information, but they are not always helpful for developing higher order thinking such as application, analysis, synthesis, or evaluation. We also know that one strategy is needed to memorize important explorers from the 1400s and 1500s; and another strategy is needed to learn how to solve a quadratic equation. For example, a student might use a rehearsal strategy where she writes the list of explorer's names 15 times. The next day on the test, she lists the names on the test. A student could use a similar approach of writing down the steps for solving a quadratic equation 15 times to help him memorize the steps. However, if the test item asks him to solve the equation, a list of the steps would probably not earn him any credit. There is a difference between memorizing the steps and applying those steps to solve a problem. In week 5, you learned to classify your objectives in the extended content-performance matrix (page 126). You determined the type of content (i.e., fact, concept, principle, etc.) and the type of performance (recall or application) for each of your objectives. This week, you will learn about the different instructional strategies you can use with each cell of this matrix. That is, what is an effective method for helping my students master the objective? Reading 1 Instructional strategies are methods we use to "reach out and touch the learner’s mind." As a teacher, how will you encourage and engage your students to process the content? This first reading will introduce you to the foundation for our instructional strategies. As you read this section, consider the following questions. 1. Why should I use instructional strategies? 2. How do mathemagenic strategies compare to generative strategies? 3. What are the different types of generative strategies? Read pages 148 to 152 (top of page) Exercise 1 Four categories of generative strategies were identified in the reading: recall integration organizational elaboration Can you identify an example of each of these that you have used when studying? You can find our description here. Would our approaches work for you? Reading 2 Our approach for designing instructional strategies for facts, concepts, principles and rules, and procedures consists of two steps. First is the initial presentation, that is, how do you convey or present the essential information for the objective to the student? Examples of the initial presentation include a lecture, videotape, handout, textbook chapter or excerpt, or a live demonstration. Your goal is to make the information as concrete and understandable as possible. The second step is the generative strategy and is the method we use to engage the learner and help them generate new meaning. When teaching an interpersonal skill or attitude, we rely on the four steps from Bandura's social learning theory. Designing an instructional strategy is part art and part science. The art is the creative approach you use to make the content understandable, how you interpret and structure it, and how you visualize the abstract ideas. The science is applying the heuristics to produce effective and reliable instruction. As you read the next section, consider the following questions. What approaches can I use to create an initial presentation to help my students understand the content? What methods can I use to engage my learners? Read pages 152 to 169. Exercise 2 In previous exercises you have developed objectives from standards, benchmarks, and textbooks. Select three objectives that you can classify into three different cells of the expanded content-matrix (review Week 5 or page 126 of your text). Develop an appropriate initial presentation and generative strategy for each objective. Post your answers in the discussion board for this exercise. You can find examples on pages 407-410 of your text. After you have posted your examples, read through the other postings. Select one objective from other students and post a different initial presentation and generative strategy to the discussion board. Once everyone has posted their examples, read through the list and find one you like and explain why it is appealing. Post your "analysis" to the discussion board. Exercise 3 Select a lesson from one week (any week) of this course and review the exercises. Using the four categories in the first exercise of this lesson, how would you classify the generative strategies we have incorporated? Is there an alternative strategy that you might use? Final Project This week you should develop the instructional strategies for your objectives. Provide details on the initial presentation and generative strategies for the objectives classified as fact, concept, principle and rule, and procedures. If you have an interpersonal or attitude objective, describe how you will accomplish each of the four steps. Summary Good instruction involves more than presenting content to our students. As teachers and instructional designers we must determine ways to present the information in an understandable form and then methods to engage the learner so that they process the content and relate it to other information that they have learned. The generative strategies described in this lesson provide a series of heuristics we can use to engage the learners and help them relate the new information to what they already know. A thorough learner analysis, task analysis, and well written objectives will be of little value if you neglect the design of the instructional strategies. Careful thought must be given to designing the appropriate initial presentation and generative strategy to help the learner master the objective.