Numerous theories recognize that the learner is an active participant in the creation of meaning from instruction. Rothkopf's concept of mathemagenic effects was one of the first conceptions to focus on the learner's internal transformation of instructional stimuli, moving away from the black box of stimulus-response behaviorism.
Bibliography of writings by Rothkopf
Rothkopf, E.Z. (1996) Control of mathemagenic activities. In D.H.Jonassen, (Ed.), Handbook of Research on Educational Communications and Technology, New York: McMillan .
Rothkopf, E.Z. and Dashen, M.L. (1995) Particularization: Inductive speeding of rule-governed decisions by narrow application experience. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, & Cognition, 21, 469-482.
Rothkopf, E.Z. & Koether, M.E. (1993) Persistence in memory of the surface organization of simple maps as performance aids. Information Design Journal, 7, 19-27.
Rothkopf, E.Z. (1992) Cultivating America's gross national intelligence. CEO:International Strategies, 5, 68-71.