1. Vitamin A deficient cow with newborn calf. The calf was born blind and weak. The optic nerves removed from the calf are pinched at the point where they pass through the optic chiasma due to improper osteal growth.
2. Normal bull testes. Note the normal spermatogenesis. All stages are represented by the successive layers of cells within the somniferous tubules. At the periphery spermatogonia and Sertoli cells are visible. Progressing in towards the center of the tubule there are maturing spermatocytes and spermatids the precursors of the spermatozoa.
3. Vitamin A deficient bull testes. Note that sperm production has been damaged. The tubules are shrunken and their outline is pronounced by the ring of the darker staining Sertoli cells.
4. Normal and vitamin A deficient rat. A dry condition of the conjunctiva known as Xeropthalmia. Metaplastic changes of this epithelium as well as many others take place. There is a dryness, ulceration and copious lacrimation which cause the eye lid to cake and to stick together.
5. Rickets in a steer before and after vitamin D therapy. This deficiency in farm animals is an occasional problem in the northern hemisphere where it is necessary to keep livestock in the barns during the winter months.
6. Rickets in a calf.
7. Rickets in a pig. Vitamin D activates alkaline phosphatases from the kidney, intestines, and bones and also enhance the net absorption of calcium and phosphorus.
8. Rickets in a pig.
9. Vitamin E deficient lamb. Characteristic symptoms of the "stiff"-lamb include apathy, stiffness of the hind legs, debility and eventually inability to rise. If affected lambs are held at waist-level and dropped, they collapse when the ground is struck and have much difficulty in rising.
10. Stiff-lamb dropped in the above manner.
11. Heart lesion in a vitamin E deficient calf. Whitish streaks which appear in the musculature are due to calcification following Zenker's degeneration.
12. Opened heart showing calcification in the ventricle walls.
13. Neck muscles of a vitamin E deficient calf. Calcified streaks.
14. Cardiac musculature of dystrophic lamb.
15. Zenkers degeneration in vitamin E deficient rabbit compared with normal litter-mate fed a stock diet. Note differences in size, color and the presence of whitish streaks.
16. Photomicrograph of Zenker's degeneration in the rabbit. Certain of the fibers appear to be swollen due to the initial increase and coagulation of the sarcoplasm. This tends to disrupt the spatial arrangement of the myofibrils and eventually the sarcolemma is ruptured. The cross-striation is lost and in advanced lesions calcification occurs.
17. Vitamin K deficiency in man. A hemorrhagic disease of the newborn infant resulting from a deficiency in the first few days of life. A marked fall in the prothrombin content of the blood occurs in all newborn infants. The affected infant, however, is unable to recover to the normal level.
18. Spontaneous subcutaneous hemorrhages in a chick fed a vitamin K deficient diet for 15 days. The bottom chick was fed an adequate diet and is the same age.
19. The smaller of these littermate guinea pigs was fed a vitamin C deficient diet. A hopping-gait developed and upon autopsy this guinea pig showed enlargement of the costochondral junction (scorbutic rosary).
20. Upper Gingivitis in adult scurvy.
Lower Capillary fragility in vitamin C deficiency. Petechial hemorrhages follow the application of a blood pressure cuff.
21. Riboflavin Deficiency. Periodic opthalmia in the horse. The most frequent manifestation of this deficiency in any susceptible specie is a vascularization of the cornea followed by ulceration and secondary infection. Other ocular signs are conjunctivitis excessive lacrimation and photophobia. Riboflavin is not a dietary requirement of functional ruminants because of bacterial synthesis.
22. Young lamb showing head retraction (opisthotonus). In the case of the young non-functional ruminant fed perified diets there may be a need for dietary thiamine.
23. Normal and thiamine deficient rat. A very marked effect on growth as well as a rough hair coat and weakness on the legs are apparent.
24. Chicks fed a thiamine deifienct diet and the same diet supplemented with the vitamin.
25. Thiamine deficient rat showing the polyneuritis symptoms. There is a locomotor incoordination in which the rat is unable to right itself.
26. Second picture showing the continual rolling over and over of the deficient rat.
27. Opisthotonus in a thiamine deficient chick.
28. Opisthotonus and poor feathering in thiamine deficient chick.
29. Normal and thiamine deficient pig. Note rought hair coat and muscular weakness.
30. Ribovlavin deficient chick. Norris et al. (1929) first reported a leg paralysis (curled-toe paralysis) which they considered to be due to a lack of a hitherto unidentified vitamin.
31. Angular stomatitis indicating a riboflavin deficiency. The lips are made pale by desguamating epitheliu and are sometimes ulcerated. The angular stomatitis consists of maceration and whitening of the skin with radiating tissues at the corners of the mouth. Also, a glossitis may occur in which the tongue becomes magenta in color and has irregular areas of denudation.
32. Riboflavin deficiency in the rat. Upper left-generalized dermatitis and growth failure, with a keratitis of the cornea. Upper right-same rat after one month of riboflavin therapy. Lower right-after two months of treatment there are no signs of the former ocular and skin lesions.
33. Niacin deficiency - advanced pellagra. Lesions on the hands and a dermatitis outlining the exposed area of the neck are pathognomonic of pellagra.
34. Glossitis seen in pellagrea. Edema and desguamation of epithelium occur.
35. Effect of niacin defficiency on chick growth.
36. Pantothenic acid deficiency in pigs. Nerve damage produces a characteristic "goose-stepping."
37. Pantothenic acid deficiency in the rat. Achromotrichia is one sign of this deficiency although it is not speciftic since a copper deficiency has been shown to result in the same sign.
38. Biotin deficiency in the rat. A bioticn deficiency can be produced by feeding egg white which contains an anti-metabolite, biotin. A dermatitis and resulting alopecia produce the characteristic "spectacle eye" appearance. Upper right-same rat after three weeks of biotin therapy. Lower right-same rat after three months of therapy.
39. Normal and folic acid deficienct lamb. Before the bacterial population of the rumen builds up it is possible to produce a deficiency of folic acid in the lamb.
40. Folic acid deficient chick and control The deficient chick is severely stunted and anemmic, the control was fed the same ration plus 100 micrograms of folic acid per 100 grams of diet.
41. Fatty acid deficient rat-scaly tail. A diet which was deficient in linoleic, linolenic and arachidonic acids was fed.
42. Rickets in a dairy calf--produced by a calcium deficiency.
43. Various stages of bone growth as shown by different stages of epipthyseal cartilage proliferation. Four different levels of isotopic phosphorus were given dairy cows to produce these autoradiographs from the femurs.
44. Rickets in the fox induced by feeding a calcium deficient diet.
45. Calcium deficiency in the mink showing another sign of the deficiency--beaded ribs or rickettsial rosary caused by an enlargement on the end of each rib at the costochondral junction.
46. Aphosphorosis in the cow. Phosphorus deficiency in the adult animal causes osteomalacia--a term commonly used to denote a failure of calcium and phosphorus nutrition in the adult bone.
47. Extreme bone damage produced by improper calcium to phosphorus ratio.
48. Phosphorus deficient lamb.
49. Lamb fed cobalt adequate diet.
50. Lamb fed cobalt deficient diet. This deficiency in ruminants causes a syndrome that resembles pernicious anemia in the human. The anemia that this deifiency produced is a normocytic, hormochromic type.
51. Copper deficient cow--Florida. Copper along with iron is necessary for hemoglobin formation. It occurs as a hemocuprein in blood cells. It also functions as a component of enzyme complexes.
52. Copper deficient cow showing signs of the deficiency as a rought hair coat and patchy areas of lost hair.
53. The same cow after copper therapy.
54. Copper deficiency in the sheep. This deficiency produces a marked decrease in the rate of woold growth and a depigmentation of black wool. "Steely" wool is characterized by limp, glossy fibers lacking the normal crimp.
55. Copper deficient rabbit and a normal litter-mate. One was maintained on a copper deficient synthetic diet while the other was fed a stock diet. Note the achromotrichia and alopecia.
56. Sulfur deficient lamb and control Sulfur is a component of methionine and cystine-two amino acids found in abundance in wool.
57. Goliter in the newborn lamb. An increase in the size of the thyroid is brought about by an iodine deficiency. This type of thyroid hypertrophy is known as endemic goiter.
58. Cow with a newborn calf showing the enlarged thyroid. Notice the normal appearance of the dam. Goliter usually shows itself in the young at birth as a result of an iodine deficiency in the ration of the mother.
59. Map of iodine deficient soils.
60. Slipped tenden (perosis) in the chick. This results from a manganese deficiency among other nutritional deficiencies. Similar bone malformations have been snown to occur in rabbits fed a diet low in manganese.
61. Manganese deficient epiphysial end of bone. In a manganese deficiency a decrease in alkaline phosphatase I n bone has been shown. Thus normal calcification is impaired.
62. Zinc deficient pig showing parakeratosis along with a litter-mate control. (Slide missing)
63. A series of four slides showing the deleterious effects of excessive flouride. Number one - normal level - good dentition.
64. Number two - slightly excessive level.
65. Number three - more severe crosion.
66. Number four - very severe erosion.
67. Selenium has not been definitely established as a dietary requirement, however under certain conditions, such as the lack of methionine, cystine, or vitamin E, it has been shown to be beneficial in correcting certain symptoms. In the rate it will prevent liver necrosis and muscular dystrophy. Here are litter-mate rats fed the same synthetic diet, but one had 1 ppm. Se added. Note apathy, leg weakness, and rough hair coat.
68. Map of mineral element deficient soils.
69. Sickle-cell anemia. Due to an heriditary defect in the hemoglobin molecule, erythrocytes change in shape when the 02 tension reaches a certain point. In the circulatory system this happens on the venous side.
70. Normal liver section. Connective tissue (basophilic) comprises about 2% of the total tissue.
71. Cirrhotic liver - the connective tissue is much increased.
72. Atrophic Rhinitis - an infectious disease of swine in which the snout thickens and is twisted to one side. (Slide missing)
73. Reticulocytosis - the release of immature erythrocytes by the bone marrow into the blood stream. This is evident after extensive hemorrhage, during acclimatization to high altitudes, and after effective treatment of nutritional anemias.
74. Diagram of the calf's stomach.
75. Plaster cast of a sheep's stomach.
76. Cut-away cow preparation.
77. Cross-section of cow through anterior rumen area.
78. Digestive tracts of calves. One was fed milk only, the other 90% hay. Notice the difference in ruminal development. The development is now believed to be due to the production of volatile fatty acids and not to the bulk.
79. Reticulum, honeycomb, or hardware stomach.
80. Omasum, manyplies, psalterium or third stomach.
81. Longitudinal section of stomach of the horse.
82. Caecum of the horse.
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