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Answers
Exam 2 -- Version B

 1.  T  
 2.  F - closer 
 3.  T  
 4.  F - Lepidoptera and Hymenoptera
 5.  F - endogenous

 6.  A          11.  A
 7.  D          12.  D
 8.  C          13.  B
 9.  B          14.  A
10.  A          15.  C

16.  Yellowjacket, Monarch butterfly, Honey bee, etc.
17.  Tympanum, chordotonal organ, pressure receptor, etc.
18.  Prowling, courtship, wing fanning, etc.
19.  Birth, death, immigration, or emigration
20.  Sunrise, sunset, etc.

21.  A          26.  D
22.  D          27.  A
23.  A          28.  D
24.  C          29.  A
25.  E          30.  E

31.  100 eggs; 64 first-instar nymphs; 32 second-instar nymphs;
     16 third-instar nymphs; 8 fourth-instar nymphs; 4 adults
     (2 males and 2 females).  "R" = 2 (population increasing). 

32.  Taxis is "directed" movement toward or away from a 
     stimulus.  It requires input from a pair of sensory
     receptors.  Kinesis is "undirected" -- a change in
     rate of locomotion or frequency of turning in response
     to a stimulus.  Only one receptor is needed.

33.  Conditioning involves "substitution" of one stimulus in
     place of another (learning to associate stimulus "A" 
     with stimulus "B").  Conditioning may occur at any time
     in the life cycle.  Imprinting occurs only early in life
     during a short vulnerable period when sensory cues (usually
     host odor) are "indelibly" recorded for future recall.  

34.  Commissures run laterally in the body, joining the paired
     ganglia within a single body segment.  Connectives run
     longitudinally, joining the ganglia of consecutive body
     segments.

35.  Olfactory (smell) receptors detect airborne chemicals.
     They are usually porous, thin-walled, domes or pegs located
     on the antennae.  Gustatory (taste) receptors detect
     substrate-borne chemicals.  They are often hollow hairs
     (setae) or pits located on tarsi, palps, or ovipositors.

36.  Lateral ocelli (stemmata) are the primary visual organs
     of holometabolous larvae.  Dorsal ocelli are simple eyes
     that are found in addtion to compound eyes in many nymphs
     (Hemimetabola) and in adults of both Hemimetabola and
     Holometabola.


37.  Essay:  A thorough answer would include a discussion of
     at least five of the following points --
        a.  production of a chemical defense
        b.  aposematic coloration
        c.  mimicry of an unpalatable species
        d.  better cryptic coloration
        e.  improved flight for faster escape
        f.  change in time of activity to avoid predator
        g.  intimidation display or other startle response



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