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Exam 1 - Version B

True/False -- Indicate "T" for true; "F" for false:

 1.  Odonata and Ephemeroptera are the only paleopterous orders.

 2.  Protura and Diplura are the only orders without compound eyes.

 3.  Diptera and Strepsiptera are the only orders with a single pair
     of membraneous wings.

 4.  Embioptera and Lepidoptera are the only orders with tarsal silk
     glands.

 5.  Hymenoptera and Isoptera are the only orders of social insects.

 6.  All Orthopteroids are herbivorous.

 7.  All apterygote insects are ametabolous.

 8.  All exopterygote insects are hemimetabolous.

 9.  All neopterous insects are holometabolous.

10.  All hemipteroids have piercing-sucking mouthparts.



11.  The diagram below illustrates an adult female snow scorpionfly.  Mark
     and label the following parts of the body:
                A.  Scape
                B.  Epiproct
                C.  Tibia
                D.  Pronotum
                E.  Metepimeron

Multiple Guess: Choose the BEST answer.

12.  In a normally developing insect, a high titer of juvenile
     hormone should NOT be found:
     A.  While it is molting from first to second instar.
     B.  Before it becomes a pupa.
     C.  When it is a sexually mature adult.
     D.  In an adult male.

13.  Which part of a molt does NOT occur during apolysis?
     A.  Formation of new epicuticle
     B.  Resorption of old endocuticle
     C.  Formation of new quinone crosslinkages
     D.  Activation of molting fluid

14.  In an insect egg, the embryo begins to develop as soon as:
     A.  Cells reach the oosome.
     B.  The zygote nucleus starts to divide.
     C.  Hormones are secreted by the activation center.
     D.  Yolk contracts from one side of the egg.

15.  Which order would a "lumper" NOT include in the Orthoptera?
     A.  Mantodea                  C.  Grylloblattodea
     B.  Phasmida                  D.  Isoptera

16.  Which of these characteristics do insects and crustaceans have
     in common?
     A.  Mandibulate mouthparts    C.  Jointed legs
     B.  Open circulatory system   D.  All of these

17.  In an obtect pupa:
     A.  The insect is surrounded by a silken cocoon.
     B.  The larval exoskeleton becomes a puparium.
     C.  The insect's body forms a chrysalis.
     D.  All of these.

18.  Which structures would be found in an eruciform larva, but NOT
     in a scarabaeiform larva?
     A.  Prolegs                   C.  Compound eyes
     B.  Mandibles                 D.  All of these

19.  Which order is most closely related (phylogenetically) to the
     Neuroptera?
     A.  Mecoptera                 C.  Phthiraptera
     B.  Blattodea                 D.  Odonata

20.  Which class is most closely related (phylogenetically) to the
     Insecta?
     A.  Xiphosura                 C.  Myriapoda
     B.  Crustacea                 D.  Arachnida

21.  Which group of insects has simple metamorphosis?
     A.  Fleas                     C.  Beetles
     B.  Flies                     D.  Bugs

22.  Insect blood does NOT:
     A.  Clot                      C.  Flow through the wings
     B.  Contain antibodies        D.  Transport hormones

23.  In insects, the first pair of post-oral appendages are called
     mandibles.  What are these appendages called in Arachnids?
     A.  Maxillae                  C.  Walking legs
     B.  Antennae                  D.  Chelicerae

24.  Which insects do NOT damage horticultural crops (as immatures)?
     A.  Sawflies                  C.  Whiteflies
     B.  Butterflies               D.  Caddisflies

25.  Which insects would be classified as decomposers?
     A.  Termites                  C.  Thrips
     B.  Crickets                  D.  Stoneflies

26.  Which sclerite lies below the epistomal suture?
     A.  Frons                     C.  Clypeus
     B.  Labrum                    D.  Gena

Matching:

Match each order with the correct name for its first-stage immature.

27.  Neuroptera                            A.  Triungulin
                                           B.  Naiad
28.  Collembola                            C.  Larva
                                           D.  Young
29.  Dermaptera                            E.  Nymph

30.  Plecoptera

31.  Strepsiptera


32.  Precocene (extracted from certain plants) is a compound that
     blocks or inhibits juvenile hormone activity in insects.  What
     effect(s) would you expect from this compound's activity in
     the following insects:

     A.  Grasshopper nymph

     B.  Fly maggot
  
     C.  Adult beetle

Short Answer:

Describe:  A.  Where you would find this structure and
           B.  What is its principle function 

33.  Micropyle



34.  Furcula



35.  Tentorium



36.  Haltere



37.  Hypopharynx




38.  How does the structure of the endocuticle differ from that of 
     the exocuticle?



39.  How does the developmental fate of endoderm differ from that of
     ectoderm?



40.  How do the wings of a beetle differ from those of a grasshopper?



41.  How do the orthopteroids differ from the hemipteroids?



42.  How do lobsters and shrimp differ from the insects?




43.  Use the keys for "Source", "Structure", and "Function" to
     complete the blanks in the following table:

   Hormone        Source          Structure        Function
-------------------------------------------------------------------

Ecdysteroids      _______           _______          _______

Eclosion Hormone  _______           _______          _______

Bursicon          _______           _______          _______

Juvenile Hormone  _______           _______          _______

Brain Hormone     _______           _______          _______

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Source:                  Structure:         Function:
A.  Ventral ganglia      A.  Peptide        A.  Trigger ecdysis
B.  Corpora allata       B.  Terpene        B.  Trigger apolysis
C.  Corpora cardiaca     C.  Steroid        C.  Inhibit development in
D.  Prothoracic gland    D.  Amine                 imaginal discs
                                            D.  Control activity of
                                                   prothoracic glands
                                            E.  Stimulate tanning


Give TWO different common names for insects in each of these orders:

44.  Orthoptera:     A.                      B.

45.  Hymenoptera:    A.                      B.

46.  Thysanura:      A.                      B.

47.  Neuroptera:     A.                      B.

48.  Hemiptera:      A.                      B.

Essay

49.  Explain how insect wings and the mechanics of flight have
     changed through natural selection to become more efficient
     in the higher orders.



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