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Exam 2 - Version A

True/False -- Indicate "T" for true; "F" for false:

 1.  Habituation is a simple form of learning in which the level of
     response decreases as the stimulus is repeated.

 2.  The brain and subesophageal ganglion are linked together by
     the circumesophageal commissure.

 3.  A single hair (trichoform sensillum) on an insect's body may be
     able to detect several types of stimuli.

 4.  If there are too many soldiers in a termite colony, the workers
     will eat the excess.

 5.  Lateral ocelli are the primary visual organs of holometabolous
     larvae.

 6.  Taste (gustatory) receptors may be located on the tarsi or 
     ovipositor of an insect.

 7.  Chordotonal organs are chemoreceptors that are highly sensitive 
     to sex pheromones.

 8.  Courtship is an appetative behavior associated with the sex
     drive.

 9.  In eusocial insects, the workers are always female.

10   A butterfly perceives the sensation of "bee purple" only when
     both the UV and yellow receptors in its eyes are stimulated.

Multiple Guess: Choose the BEST answer.

11.  The recurrent nerve joins:
     A.  The two lobes of the tritocerebrum
     B.  The tritocerebrum with the subesophageal ganglion
     C.  The frontal and hypocerebral ganglia
     D.  The tritocerebrum with the frontal ganglion

12.  If an insect's developmental threshold is 15 degrees F,
     how many degree-days (DD) does it acquire on a day when the 
     average temperature is 72 degrees F?
     A.  87 DD                     C.  57 DD
     B.  30 DD                     D.  No way to tell

13.  Broad-spectrum detoxification enzymes are commonly found in:
     A.  Blood feeding insects
     B.  Polyphagous herbivores
     C.  Insect parasitoids
     D.  All of these

14.  If a population's intrinsic rate of increase ("r") is
     less than one, then the population is:
     A.  Growing rapidly           C.  Stable
     B.  Growing slowly            D.  Declining

15.  When laying eggs, a female insect returns to her larval host
     plant, even though she has not fed upon this plant during her
     adult life.  This is an example of:
     A.  Conditioning              C.  Habituation
     B.  Imprinting                D.  Instrumental learning

16.  When a newly emerged queen honey bee hears the sound of "piping
     and quacking" from unemerged queens, she will find and destroy
     their cells.  Apparently, these sounds are an example of:
     A.  A releaser                C.  A transverse orientation
     B.  Appetative behavior       D.  A fixed action pattern

17.  Behavior patterns that change drastically over the lifetime of
     an insect are probably:
     A.  Learned                   C.  Innate
     B.  Imprinted                 D.  Afferent

18.  What information could NOT be determined from a life table?
     A.  Significant mortality factors
     B.  Intrinsic rate of increase
     C.  Environmental carrying capacity
     D.  Stage-specific mortality rate

19.  A certain insect usually becomes active each day at dusk.  If
     kept in the dark all day, it will still become active around
     sunset even though it cannot see the sun.  This behavior is
     an example of:
     A.  A circadian rhythm        C.  Transverse orientation
     B.  Diurnal behavior          D.  Exogenous entrainment

20.  Worker ants remember landmarks around their nest entrance and
     use these as a guide when returning home.  This behavior is an
     example of:
     A.  Imprinting                C.  Conditioning
     B.  Habituation               D.  Instrumental learning


21.  Blow fly larvae collected from the body of a murder victim
     pupated in four days when held at a constant temperature of
     20 degrees Celsius.  If this species has a developmental
     threshold of 6 degrees Celsius and needs 420 degree-days to
     grow from egg to pupa, how much physiological time elapsed
     before the larvae were removed from the corpse?  Show your
     work and circle your answer.




Questions 22-26    Use the following key to indicate which type of
                   chemical signal is described in each of these
                   situations.
                                A.  Allomone
                                B.  Pheromone
                                C.  Hormone
                                D.  Kairomone

22.  Odors associated with the wing scales of certain Lepidoptera
     (Heliothis spp.) attract parasitoid wasps in the genus 
     Trichogramma.

23.  In response to crowding, adults of the migratory locust develop 
     high blood titers of a substance that stimulates aggregation,
     flight activity, and eventually swarming.

24.  Both male and female ladybugs (Hippodamia convergens) 
     produce an odor that attracts others of this species to
     aggregate in large overwintering swarms.

25.  The mandibular gland substance of the queen honeybee inhibits 
     ovarian development among worker bees in the same hive.

26.  Some sawfly larvae rear back and secrete a droplet of repellant
     oil whenever they are disturbed by a predator.

Matching

Match each behavior in the left column with its typical function listed 
in the right column.  Answers may be used once, more than once, or not at all.

27.  Light flash in firefly                A.  Courtship
                                           B.  Dispersal
28.  Waggle dance in honey bee             C.  Nestmate recognition
                                           D.  Location of food
29.  Stridulation in cricket               E.  Alarm

30.  Trophallaxis in ants

31.  Hissing in cockroach

Short Answer

32.  How does diapause differ from torpor or quiescence?



33.  How does the structure of a compound eye differ from that of an
     ocellus?



34.  How do the workers in a bee hive differ from those in a termite
     colony?



35.  How does Batesian mimicry differ from Mullerian mimicry?



36.  How does a taxis differ from a kinesis?





37.  The table below lists the innervations for several major insect
     ganglia.  Cross out all INCORRECT entries.


Ganglion                       Innervations
-------------------------------------------------------------------

Subesophageal           Heart, Crop, Labium, Salivary glands

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Protocerebrum           Ocelli, compound eyes, antennae, labrum

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Frontal                 Mandibles, maxillae, mouth, palps

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Metathoracic            Midgut, proventriculus, cerci, spiracle

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Caudal                  Wings, legs, ovipositor, rectum

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Essay

38. Because they have different types of sensory receptors, insects 
    and humans may perceive the same environment very differently.
    What types of stimuli can humans detect more easily than 
    insects, and what can insects detect that humans cannot?



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