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Exam 2 - Version B

True/False -- Indicate "T" for true.  If false, substitute a word or phrase for the italicized portion to make the statement true.

 1.  Gustatory (taste) receptors are usually located on the tarsi,
     palps and ovipositor of an insect.

 2.  The further away an object is the more clearly an insect can
     see its shape.

 3.  Tympana and chordotonal organs may both function as sound
     receptors.

 4.  True color vision (trichromatic) occurs only in the orders
     Diptera and Coleoptera.

 5.  Exogenous rhythms persist even in the absence of entrainment
     cues from the environment.

Multiple Choice

 6.  Chemicals released by "threatened" aphids elicit defensive
     behavior among the ants that tend these aphids.  Such chemicals
     would be best described as:
     A.  Allomones                        C.  Hormones
     B.  Pheromones                       D.  Kairomones

 7.  Substances in the frass produced by bark beetles attract
     predators and parasites to trees that are infested by these
     beetles.  Such substances would be best described as:
     A.  Allomones                        C.  Hormones
     B.  Pheromones                       D.  Kairomones
   
 8.  When a predator changes its search image in response to a
     change in the density of prey, it exhibits a(n):
     A.  Conditioned response             C.  Functional response
     B.  Numerical response               D.  None of these

 9.  Which insects are most likely to pollinate foul-smelling flowers?
     A.  Hover flies                      C.  Honey bees
     B.  Carrion beetles                  D.  Stink bugs

10.  If an insect's subesophageal ganglion were paralyzed, it would
     be unable to:
     A.  Eat                              C.  See
     B.  Fly                              D.  Walk

11.  Fly larvae (maggots) move directly away from a bright source
     of light.  This is an example of a:
     A.  Taxis                            C.  Reflex
     B.  Kinesis                          D.  Transverse orientation

12.  Ants remember a food trail by the location of landmarks along
     the way.  This is an example of:
     A.  Conditioning                     C.  Imprinting
     B.  Habituation                      D.  Instrumental learning

13.  A male empiid fly courts a female for 20 minutes and then
     gives up after he fails to elicit any response.  This is an
     example of:
     A.  Conditioning                     C.  Imprinting
     B.  Habituation                      D.  Instrumental learning

14.  The central nervous system of an insect controls the:
     A.  Mandibles and maxillae
     B.  Legs and wings
     C.  Heart and foregut
     D.  None of these

15.  The major differences between European and Africanized honey
     bees are:
     A.  Physical (size)                  C.  Behavior (agressiveness)
     B.  Ecological (habitat)             D.  All of these

Short Answer



16.  Give an example of an aposematic insect.

17.  Give an example of a mechanoreceptor.

18.  Give an example of an appetative behavior.

19.  Give an example of a primary ecological event.

20.  Give an example of an entrainment cue (zeitgeber).


Matching

     Match each behavior in the left column with its typical
     function in the right column.  Answers may be used once,
     more than once, or not at all.

21.  Light flash in a firefly           A.  Courtship
                                        B.  Dispersal
22.  Waggle dance in honey bee          C.  Nestmate recognition
                                        D.  Location of food
23.  Stridulation in cricket            E.  Alarm
                             
24.  Trophallaxis in ants

25.  Hissing in cockroach


Matching

     Which group of insects fits each of the statements
     in #26-30?  Answers may be used once, more than once,
     or not at all.

                      A.  Only termites
                      B.  Only bees and wasps
                      C.  Only ants
                      D.  All social Hymenoptera
                      E.  All social insects

26.  All workers are female.

27.  Immatures serve as workers in the colony.

28.  Males are produced parthenogenically.

29.  Soldiers are a separate caste.

30.  There is reproductive division of labor.


Short Answer


31.  Construct a life table for a hypothetical insect that has four nymphal
     instars.  Start with a cohort of 100 eggs.  Assume 36% of the eggs are
     infertile and 50% of the nymphs die from predation during each instar.
     How many will survive to be adults and (assume 1:1 sex ratio) what is
     the replacement rate ("R") for this population? 
  








32-36.  Explain how to distinguish between each pair of terms.


32.  Taxis and Kinesis.



33.  Conditioning and Imprinting.



34.  Commissure and Connective.



35.  Olfactory receptors and gustatory receptors.



36.  Dorsal ocelli and lateral ocelli.





Essay



37.    Imagine a local population of beetles (or grasshoppers) that
suddenly comes under intense selective pressure from a new predator 
species that has been accidently imported from Asia.  Describe at
least five possible adaptations (genetic changes) that might reduce
the prey species' vulnerability to attack by this (or any other)
predator.  You may assume that the prey has a large gene pool with
lots of potential variability.



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