_____ Early environment
_____ Gene expression
_____ The sense of vision
_____ Evolutionary history
_____ Neural activity
2. Define the following terms: (14)
4. Contrast the "organizational" effects with the "activational" effects of steroid hormones on behavior. (4)
5. Synapses within the CNS can be either excitatory or _____________ .
6. The concentration of a neurotransmitter such as dopamine at the synapse is dependent upon both _________________ and ______________ . (2)
7. Can a behavior be "dissociated" from a hormone? Yes ___ No ___ .
Provide an example: (3)
8. List 4 characteristics of a biological rhythm: (4)
9. The concentration of melatonin is higher / lower at night in diurnal mammals. (Circle correct word). Melatonin is produced in the ____________ gland. (2)
10. What change in behavior follows the lesioning the suprachiasmatic nucleus in the brain of a hamster or mouse? (6)
12. True/False questions: (6)
______ REM sleep is shown by all placental mammals.
______ All birds must learn their species-specific song from their parents while in the nest.
______ Stress is an environmental perturbation that disrupts homeostasis.
______ Some birds have regional dialects in their song.
______ In computer terms, the male mammal is the default sex.
______ A "conditioned stimulus" follows a "conditioned response."
13. List 4 principles of behavioral development in animals: (4)
14. Outline a simple experiment in either the laboratory or field to test whether birds learn a regional dialect or whether it is innate to that sub-population. (6)
15. List 3 results of rearing monkeys under conditions of severe social deprivation: (3)
16. What are 3 functions of play in mammals? (3)
17. Castration of a newborn male rat has the following consequences:
_____ Larger body size as an adult
_____ Shows lordosis when injected with estrogen and progesterone
_____ Is hyperaggressive
_____ Prefers sweet fluids to drink more than non-castrated controls
18. Describe 4 differences in the behavior or reproductive physiology of a female mouse that develops in utero between two males (2M) and one that develops between two females (0M): (Use single words or phrases) (8)
19. In addition to the X - Y chromosomal determination of sex in mammals, list 2 other mechanisms for determining sex in vertebrates: (2)
20. List 3 schedules of reinforcement used in learning studies. (3)
21. In avoidance learning, the intensity of both the _____________ and the ____________ are important. (2)
22. How would you respond if someone told you that only humans were capable of tool use? (2)
23. List 3 possible mechanisms being explored to understand memory. (3)
24. What evidence must be available to prove that communication has occurred between two or more individuals? (3)
25. Assume you are watching honey bees at a hive, & you note one
bee returns from foraging & displays a "round dance" with a straight
run at 10 degrees to the north of the sun. What would you conclude from
this? True / False (3)
_____ Bees dance for joy upon finding nectar
_____ The nectar source is a long distance from the hive
_____ The nectar source is located on a line 10 degrees to the north of the sun