NC State University
Schal Lab Publications: Refereed, Reviews & Patents

PDF format requires Adobe Acrobat Reader. Click to download Acrobat Reader 
      Click here for Extension and Popular publications

      Web of Science Researcher ID: A-8717-2010;      Google Scholar

  1. Groot A. T., G. Schöfl, O. Inglis, S. Donnerhacke, A. Classen, A. Schmalz, R. G. Santangelo, J. Emerson, F. Gould, C. Schal and D. G. Heckel. 2014. Within-population variability in a moth sex pheromone blend: genetic basis and behavioural consequences. Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences 281 (1779):20133054. doi: 10.1098/rspb.2013.3054. PDF
  2. Martin L. J., R. Adams, A. Bateman, H. M. Bik, S. Crane, L. Fellman, S. M. Hird, D. Hughes, S. W. Kembel, K. Kinney, S.-O. Kolokotronis, G. Levy, C. McClain, J. F. Meadow, R. F. Medina, G. Mhuireach, C. S. Moreau, J. Munshi-South, C. Palmer, L. Popova, C. Schal, J. Siegel, M. Täubel, M. Trautwein, J. A. Ugalde, W. Wilson and R. R. Dunn. 2014. Evolution in the indoor biome. Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences (in revision).
  3. Martynova E. U., T. V. Kapelinskaya, C. Schal and D. V. Mukha. 2014. Intracellular localization of regulatory proteins of the German cockroach Blattella germanica densovirus. Molecular Biology 48: 301–304. PDF
  4. Raab R. W., J. E. Moore, E. L. Vargo, L. Rose, J. Raab, M. Culbreth, G. Burzumato, A. Koyee, B. McCarthy, J. Raffaele, C. Schal and R. Vaidyanathan. 2014. New introductions, spread of existing matrilines, and high rates of pyrethroid resistance result in chronic infestations of bed bugs (Cimex lectularius L.) in lower-income housing. PLoS ONE (in revision).
  5. Romero A. and C. Schal. 2014. Blood constituents as phagostimulants for the bed bug, Cimex lectularius L. Journal of Experimental Biology 217: 552–557. PDF
  6. Saenz V. L., R. G. Santangelo, E. L. Vargo and C. Schal. 2014. Group-living accelerates bed bug (Hemiptera: Cimicidae) development. Journal of Medical Entomology 51: 293–295. PDF   ESA   Science Daily   Philly.com   RedOrbit   Medical Daily   PR Web  
  7. Shik J. Z., C. Schal, and J. Silverman. 2014. Diet specialization in an extreme omnivore: nutritional regulation in glucose-averse German cockroaches. Journal of Evolutionary Biology (in press). doi: 10.1111/jeb.12458. PDF
  8. Vargo E. L., J. R. Crissman, W. Booth, R. G. Santangelo, D. V. Mukha and C. Schal. 2014. Hierarchical genetic analysis of German cockroach (Blattella germanica) populations from within buildings to across continents. PLoS ONE 9(7): e102321. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0102321. PDF
  9. Uzsák A., J. Dieffenderfer, A. Bozkurt and C. Schal. 2014. Social facilitation of insect reproduction with motor-driven tactile stimuli. Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences 281 (1783):20140325. doi: 10.1098/rspb.2014.0325. PDF   NCSU   Smithsonian   Entomology Today   Phys.org    RedOrbit                     
  10. Böröczky K., A. Wada-Katsumata, D. Batchelor, M. Zhukovskaya and C. Schal. 2013. Insects groom their antennae to enhance olfactory acuity. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, USA 110: 3615–3620. Link    In this isssue of PNAS    NPR Science Friday  audio   SciFri video    Discovery Channel
  11. Carr A. L., R. M. Roe, C. Arellano, D. E. Sonenshine, C. Schal and C. S. Apperson. 2013. Responses of Amblyomma americanum and Dermacentor variabilis (Acari: Ixodidae) to odorants that attract haematophagous insects. Medical and Veterinary Entomology 27: 86–95. Link   Editor's Choice    NCSU Perspectives
  12. Groot A.T., H. Staudacher, A. Barthel, O. Inglis, G. Schöfl, R.G. Santangelo, S. Gebauer-Jung S, H. Vogel, J. Emerson, C. Schal C, D.G. Heckel and F. Gould. 2013. One quantitative trait locus for intra- and interspecific variation in a sex pheromone. Molecular Ecology 22: 1065–1080. Link
  13. Saenz V. L., R. G. Maggi, E. B. Breitschwerdt, J. Kim, E. L. Vargo and C. Schal. 2013. Survey of Bartonella spp. in U.S. bed bugs detects Burkholderia multivorans but not Bartonella. PLoS ONE 8(9): e73661. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0073661. Link  Access the recommendation on F1000Prime
  14. Uzsák A. and C. Schal. 2013. Sensory cues involved in social facilitation of reproduction in Blattella germanica females. PLoS ONE 8(2): e55678. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0055678. Link
  15. Uzsák A. and C. Schal. 2013. Social interaction facilitates reproduction in male German cockroaches, Blattella germanica. Animal Behaviour 85: 1501–1509. PDF
  16. Wada-Katsumata A., J. Silverman and C. Schal. 2013. Changes in taste neurons support the emergence of an adaptive behavior in cockroaches. Science 340: 972–975.  Abstract   Reprint   Full Text (also movies)  Dryad data repository    Science Podcast (start at 10:10 min)  NY Times   Associated Press   BBC (narrated video)  The Scientist   NPR   Pest Control Technology Podcast     ScienceNews   J General Physiol Access the recommendation on F1000Prime
  17. Booth W., V. L. Saenz, R. G. Santangelo, C. Wang, C. Schal and E. L. Vargo. 2012. Molecular markers reveal infestation dynamics of the bed bug (Hemiptera: Cimicidae) within apartment buildings. Journal of Medical Entomology 49: 535–546. PDF
  18. Eliyahu D., S. Nojima, R. G. Santangelo, S. Carpenter, F. X. Webster, D. J. Kiemle, C. Gemeno, W. S. Leal and C. Schal. 2012. An unusual macrocyclic lactone sex pheromone of Parcoblatta lata, a primary food source of the endangered red-cockaded woodpecker. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, USA 109: E490–E496. Link
  19. Saenz V. L., W. Booth, C. Schal and E. L. Vargo. 2012. Genetic analysis of bed bug populations reveals small propagule size within individual infestations but high genetic diversity across infestations from the Eastern United States. Journal of Medical Entomology 49: 865–875. PDF
  20. Uzsák A. and C. Schal. 2012. Differential physiological responses of the German cockroach to social interactions during the ovarian cycle. Journal of Experimental Biology 215: 3037–3044. PDF
  21. Ahmad A., A. Ghosh, C. Schal and L. Zurek. 2011. Insects in confined swine operations carry a large antibiotic resistant and potentially virulent enterococcal community. BMC Microbiology 11: 23. Link
  22. Benda N. D., C. Brownie, C. Schal and F. Gould. 2011. Field observations of oviposition by a specialist herbivore on plant parts and plant species unsuitable as larval food. Environmental Entomology 40: 1478–1486. PDF
  23. Blomquist G. J., R. Jurenka, C. Schal and C. Tittiger. 2011. Pheromone production: Biochemistry and molecular biology. In: Insect Endocrinology (L. I. Gilbert, ed.), Chapter 12, pp. 523–567, Academic Press. Elsevier. ScienceDirect.
  24. Booth W., D. H. Johnson, S. Moore, C. Schal and E. L. Vargo. 2011. Evidence for viable, non-clonal but fatherless Boa constrictors. Biology Letters 7: 253–256. PDF
  25. Booth W., L. Million, R. G. Reynolds, G. M. Burghardt, E. L. Vargo, C. Schal, A. C. Tzika, and G. W. Schuett. 2011. Consecutive virgin births in the new world boid snake, the Colombian rainbow boa, Epicrates maurus. Journal of Heredity 102: 759–763. PDF
  26. Booth W., R. G. Santangelo, E. L. Vargo, D. V. Mukha and C. Schal. 2011. Population genetic structure in German cockroaches (Blattella germanica): Differentiated islands in an agricultural landscape. Journal of Heredity 102: 175–183. PDF
  27. Gemeno C., G. M. Williams and C. Schal. 2011. Effect of shelter on reproduction, growth and longevity of the German cockroach, Blattella germanica (Dictyoptera: Blattellidae). European Journal of Entomology 108: 205–210. PDF
  28. Groot A. T., A. Classen, O. Inglis, C. A. Blanco, J. López, A. Terán Vargas, C. Schal, D. G. Heckel and G. Schöfl. 2011. Genetic differentiation across North America in the generalist moth Heliothis virescens and the specialist H. subflexa. Molecular Ecology 20: 2676–2692. PDF
  29. Kapelinskaya T., E. Martynova, C. Schal and D. Mukha. 2011. Expression strategy of densonucleosis virus from the German cockroach, Blattella germanica. Journal of Virology 85: 11855–11870. PDF
  30. Mukha D. V., V. Mysina, V. Mavropulo and C. Schal. 2011. Structure and molecular evolution of the ribosomal DNA external transcribed spacer in the cockroach genus Blattella. Genome 54: 222–234. PDF
  31. Nojima S., D. J. Kiemle, F. X. Webster, C. S. Apperson and C. Schal. 2011. Nanogram-scale preparation and NMR analysis for mass-limited small volatile compounds. PLoS ONE 6(3): e18178. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0018178. Link
  32. Ponnusamy L., K. Böröczky, D. M. Wesson, C. Schal and C. S. Apperson. 2011. Bacteria stimulate hatching of yellow fever mosquito eggs. PLoS ONE 6(9): e24409. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0024409. Link
  33. Richard F-J., C. Schal, D. R. Tarpy and C. M. Grozinger. 2011. Effects of instrumental insemination and insemination quantity on Dufour’s gland chemical profiles and vitellogenin expression in honey bee queens (Apis mellifera). Journal of Chemical Ecology 37:1027–1036. PDF Access the recommendation on F1000Prime
  34. Schal C. 2011. Cockroaches. In: Handbook of Pest Control (S. Hedges and D. Moreland, eds.), pp. 150–291, GIE Media. Mallis Handbook. Contributors      Q&A.
  35. Wada-Katsumata A., J. Silverman and C. Schal. 2011. Differential inputs from chemosensory appendages mediate feeding responses to glucose in wild-type and glucose-averse German cockroaches, Blattella germanica. Chemical Senses 36: 589–600. PDF
  36. Wang G., G. M. Vásquez, C. Schal, L. J. Zwiebel and F. Gould. 2011. Functional characterization of pheromone receptors in the tobacco budworm Heliothis virescens. Insect Molecular Biology 20: 125–133. PDF
  37. Crissman J. R., W. Booth, R. G. Santangelo, D. V. Mukha, E. L. Vargo and C. Schal. 2010. Population genetic structure of the German cockroach (Blattodea: Blattellidae) in apartment buildings. Journal of Medical Entomology 47: 553–564. PDF
  38. Gould F., M. Estock, N. K. Hillier, B. Powell, A. T. Groot, C. M. Ward, J. L. Emerson, C. Schal, N. J. Vickers. 2010. Sexual isolation of male moths explained by a single pheromone response QTL containing four receptor genes. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, USA 107: 8660–8665. PDF (PDF of commentary by David Heckel).
  39. Groot A. T. C. A. Blanco, A. Classen, O. Inglis, R. G. Santangelo, J. Lopez, D. G. Heckel and C. Schal. 2010. Variation in sexual communication of the tobacco budworm Heliothis virescens. Southwestern Entomologist 35: 367–372. PDF
  40. Groot A. T., A. Classen, H. Staudacher, C. Schal and D. G. Heckel. 2010. Phenotypic plasticity in sexual communication signal of a noctuid moth. Journal of Evolutionary Biology 23: 2731–2738. PDF
  41. Kurczewski F. E., R. E. Coville and C. Schal. 2010. Observations on the nesting and prey of the solitary wasp, Tachysphex inconspicuus, with a review of nesting behavior in the T. obscuripennis species group. Journal of Insect Science 10:183. Link
  42. Mankin R. W., R. D. Hodges, H. T. Nagle, C. Schal, R. M. Pereira and P. G. Koehler. 2010. Acoustic indicators for targeted detection of stored product and urban insect pests by inexpensive infrared, acoustic, and vibrational detection of movement. Journal of Economic Entomology 103: 1636–1646. PDF
  43. Menke S. B., W. Booth, R. R. Dunn, C. Schal, E. L. Vargo and J. Silverman. 2010. Is it easy to be urban? Convergent success in urban habitats among lineages of a widespread native ant. PLoS ONE 5(2): e9194. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0009194. Link
  44. Ponnusamy L., D. M. Wesson, C. Arellano, C. Schal and C. S. Apperson. 2010. Species composition of bacterial communities influences attraction of mosquitoes to experimental plant infusions. Microbial Ecology 59: 158–173. PDF
  45. Ponnusamy L., N. Xu, D. M. Wesson, K. Böröczky, L. Abu Ayyash, C. Schal and C. S. Apperson. 2010. Oviposition responses of the mosquitoes Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus to experimental plant infusions in laboratory bioassays. Journal of Chemical Ecology 36: 709–719. PDF
  46. Tomalski M., W. Leimkuehler, C. Schal and E. L. Vargo. 2010. Metabolism of imidacloprid in workers of Reticulitermes flavipes (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae). Annals of the Entomological Society of America 103: 84–95. PDF
  47. Youngsteadt E., P. G. Bustios and C. Schal. 2010. Divergent chemical cues elicit seed collecting by ants in an obligate multi-species mutualism in lowland Amazonia. PLoS ONE 5(12): e15822. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0015822. Link
  48. Benda N. D., C. Brownie, C. Schal and F. Gould. 2009. Fruit abscission by Physalis species as defense against frugivory. Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata 130: 21–27. PDF
  49. Booth W., E. Youngsteadt, C. Schal and E. L. Vargo. 2009. Polymorphic microsatellite loci for the ant-garden ant, Crematogaster levior (Forel). Conservation Genetics 10: 639–641. PDF
  50. Booth W., E. Youngsteadt, C. Schal and E. L. Vargo. 2009. Characterization of 8 polymorphic microsatellite loci in the neotropical ant-garden ant, Camponotus femoratus (Fabricius). Conservation Genetics 10: 1401–1403. PDF
  51. Eliyahu D., S. Nojima, K. Mori and C. Schal. 2009. Jail baits: How and why nymphs mimic adult females of the German cockroach, Blattella germanica. Animal Behaviour 78: 1097–1105. PDF
  52. Gould F., Groot A., Vasquez G. and C. Schal. 2009. Sexual communication in Lepidoptera: a need for wedding genetics, biochemistry, and molecular biology. In: Molecular Biology and Genetics of the Lepidoptera (M. R. Goldsmith and F. Marec, eds.), Chapter 10, pp. 169–193, CRC Press, Boca Raton, Florida.
  53. Groot A. T., M. Estock, J. Horowitz, J. Hamilton, R. G. Santangelo, C. Schal and F. Gould. 2009. QTL analysis of sex pheromone blend differences between two closely related moths: Insights into divergence in biosynthetic pathways. Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology 39: 568–577. PDF
  54. Groot A. T., O. Inglis, S. Bowdridge, R. G. Santangelo, C. Blanco, J. D. López, A. T. Vargas, F. Gould and C. Schal. 2009. Geographic and temporal variation in moth chemical communication. Evolution 63: 19872003. PDF
  55. Nalyanya G., J. C. Gore, H. M. Linker and C. Schal. 2009. German cockroach allergen levels in North Carolina schools: Comparison of integrated pest management and conventional cockroach control. Journal of Medical Entomology, Forum 46: 420–427. PDF
  56. Schal C. 2009. The ABC’s of indoor health: Allergens, Baits, and Cockroach mitigation strategies. In: Advances in Human Vector Control, ACS Symposium Series, Volume 1014, Chapter 7, pp. 89-106. PDF
  57. Suazo A., C. Gore and C. Schal. 2009. RNA interference-mediated knock-down of Bla g 1 in the German cockroach, Blattella germanica L., implicates this allergen-encoding gene in digestion and nutrient absorption. Insect Molecular Biology 18: 727–736. PDF
  58. Vasquez G. M., C. Schal and J. Silverman. 2009. Colony fusion in Argentine ants is guided by worker and queen cuticular hydrocarbon profile similarity. Journal of Chemical Ecology 35: 922932. PDF.
  59. Youngsteadt E., J. A. Baca, J. Osborne and C. Schal. 2009. Species-specific seed dispersal in an obligate ant-plant mutualism. PLoS One 4(2): e4335. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0004335. Link
  60. Booth W., V. R. Lewis, R. L. Taylor, C. Schal and E. L. Vargo. 2008. Identification and characterization of 15 polymorphic microsatellite loci in the western dry-wood termite, Incisitermes minor (Hagen). Molecular Ecology Resources 8: 1102–1104. PDF
  61. Eliyahu D., S. Nojima, S. M. Siefert, D. L. Comins and C. Schal. 2008. Identification of cuticular lipids eliciting interspecific courtship in the German cockroach, Blattella germanica. Naturwissenschaften 95: 403–412 (journal cover). PDF
  62. Eliyahu D., S. Nojima, K. Mori and C. Schal. 2008. New contact sex pheromone components of the German cockroach, Blattella germanica, predicted from the proposed biosynthetic pathway. Journal of Chemical Ecology 34: 229–237. PDF
  63. Fan Y., D. Eliyahu and C. Schal. 2008. Cuticular hydrocarbons as maternal provisions in embryos and nymphs of the cockroach Blattella germanica. Journal of Experimental Biology 211: 548554. PDF
  64. Kapelinskaya T. V., E. U. Martynova, A. L. Korolev, C. Schal and D. V. Mukha. 2008. Transcription of the German cockroach densovirus BgDNV genome: Alternative processing of viral RNAs. Doklady Biochemistry and Biophysics 421: 176–180. PDF
  65. Mullen S. P., J. Millar, C. Schal and K. L. Shaw. 2008. Identification and characterization of cuticular hydrocarbons from a rapid species radiation of Hawaiian swordtailed crickets (Gryllidae: Trigonidiinae: Laupala). Journal of Chemical Ecology 34: 198–204. PDF
  66. Nojima S., C. S. Apperson and C. Schal. 2008. A simple, convenient, and efficient preparative GC system that uses a short megabore capillary column as a trap. Journal of Chemical Ecology 34: 418–428. PDF
  67. Pfannenstiel R. S., W. Booth, E. L. Vargo and C. Schal. 2008. The Asian cockroach Blattella asahinai Mizukubo (Dictyoptera: Blattellidae): A new predator of lepidopteran eggs in south Texas soybean. Annals of the Entomological Society of America 101: 763–768. PDF
  68. Ponnusamy L., N. Xu, S. Nojima, D. M. Wesson, C. Schal and C. S. Apperson. 2008. Identification of bacteria and bacteria-associated chemical cues that mediate oviposition site preferences by Aedes aegypti. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, USA105: 9262–9267. Link
  69. Ponnusamy L., N. Xu, G. Stav, D. M. Wesson, C. Schal and C. S. Apperson. 2008. Diversity of bacterial communities in container habitats of mosquitoes. Microbial Ecology 56: 593–603. PDF
  70. Vasquez G., C. Schal and J. Silverman. 2008. Cuticular hydrocarbons as queen adoption cues in the invasive Argentine ant. Journal of Experimental Biology 211: 12491256. PDF
  71. Youngsteadt E., S. Nojima, C. Häberlein, S. Schulz and C. Schal. 2008. Seed odor mediates an obligate ant-plant mutualism in Amazonian rainforest. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, USA 105: 4571–4575. Link
  72. Booth W., S. M. Bogdanowicz, P. A. Prodöhl, R. G. Harrison, C. Schal and E. L. Vargo. 2007. Identification and characterization of 10 polymorphic microsatellite loci in the German cockroach, Blattella germanica. Molecular Ecology Notes 7: 648650. PDF
  73. Brent C. S., C. Schal and E. L. Vargo. 2007. Endocrine effects of social stimuli on maturing queens of the dampwood termite Zootermopsis angusticollis. Physiological Entomology 32: 26–33. PDF
  74. Gore J. C. and C. Schal. 2007. Cockroach allergen biology and mitigation in the indoor environment. Annual Reviews of Entomology 52: 439463. PDF
  75. Groot A. T., R. G. Santangelo, E. Ricci, C. Brownie, F. Gould and C. Schal. 2007. Differential attraction of Heliothis subflexa males to synthetic pheromone lures in Eastern US and Western Mexico. Journal of Chemical Ecology 33: 353368. PDF
  76. Mukha D. V., A. S. Kagramanova, I. V. Lazebnaya, O. E. Lazebnyi, E. L. Vargo and C. Schal. 2007. Intraspecific variation and population structure of the German cockroach, Blattella germanica, revealed with RFLP analysis of the nontranscribed spacer region of ribosomal DNA. Medical and Veterinary Entomology 21: 19. PDF
  77. Mullen S. P., T. C. Mendelson, C. Schal and K. L. Shaw. 2007. Rapid evolution of cuticular hydrocarbons in a species radiation of acoustically diverse Hawaiian crickets (Gryllidae: Trigonidiinae: Laupala). Evolution 61: 223–231. PDF
  78. Sever M. L., S. J. Arbes , J. C. Jr. Gore, R. G. Santangelo, B. Vaughn, H. Mitchell, C. Schal and D. C. Zeldin. 2007. Cockroach allergen reduction by cockroach control alone in low-income, urban homes: A randomized control trial. Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology 120: 849855. PDF
  79. Groot A. T., J. Bennett, J. Hamilton, R. G. Santangelo, C. Schal and F. Gould. 2006. Experimental evidence for interspecific directional selection force on moth pheromone communication. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, USA 103: 5858–5863. Link      Access the recommendation on F1000Prime
  80. Kagramanova A. S, A. L. Korolev, C. Schal and D. V. Mukha. 2006. Length polymorphism of integrated copies of R1 and R2 retrotransposons in the German cockroach (Blattella germanica) as a potential marker for population and phylogenetic studies. Russian Journal of Genetics 42: 397401. PDF
  81. Kovanci O. B., C. Schal, J. F. Walgenbach and G. G. Kennedy. 2006. Effects of pheromone loading, dispenser age, and trap height on pheromone trap catches of the oriental fruit moth in apple orchards. Phytoparasitica 34: 252260. PDF
  82. Mukha D. V., A. G. Chumachenko, M. J. Dykstra, J. Kurtti and C. Schal. 2006. Characterization of a new densovirus infecting the German cockroach, Blattella germanica. Journal of General Virology 87: 15671575. PDF
  83. Roelofs W. L., C. Schal, F. X. Webster, S. Nojima. German cockroach attractant. U. S. Pat. 2006/0057101 A1 Published March 16, 2006. PDF
  84. Sheck A. l., A. Groot, C. M. Ward, C. Gemeno, J. Wang, C. Schal and F. Gould. 2006. Genetics of sex pheromone blend differences between Heliothis virescens and Heliothis subflexa: A chromosome mapping approach. Journal of Evolutionary Biology 19: 600–617. PDF
  85. Brent C. S., C. Schal and E. L. Vargo. 2005. Endocrine changes in maturing primary queens of Zootermopsis angusticollis. Journal of Insect Physiology 51: 12001209. PDF
  86. Chumachenko A. G., C. Schal and D. V. Mukha. 2005. Discovery of retrotransposons of the cockroach Blattella germanica. Doklady Biochemistry and Biophysics 401: 104107. PDF
  87. Fan Y., J. C. Gore, K. O. Redding, L. D. Vailes, M. D. Chapman and C. Schal. 2005. Tissue location and regulation by juvenile hormone of German cockroach, Blattella germanica (L.) allergen Bla g 4. Insect Molecular Biology 14: 4553. PDF
  88. Gore J. C. and C. Schal 2005. Expression, production and excretion of Bla g 1, a major human allergen, in relation to food intake in the German cockroach Blattella germanica. Medical and Veterinary Entomology 19: 127134. PDF
  89. Groot A., Y. Fan, C. Brownie, R. A. Jurenka, F. Gould and C. Schal. 2005. Effect of PBAN of the sex pheromone compounds in glands of mated Heliothis virescens and Heliothis subflexa females. Journal of Chemical Ecology 31: 1428. PDF
  90. Groot A., C. Gemeno, C. Brownie, F. Gould and C. Schal. 2005. Male and female responses in Heliothis virescens and H. subflexa to conspecific and heterospecific sex pheromone compounds. Environmental Entomology 34: 256263. PDF
  91. Kovanci O.B., C. Schal, J.F. Walgenbach and G.G. Kennedy. 2005. Comparison of mating disruption with pesticides for management of oriental fruit moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) in North Carolina apple orchards. Journal of Economic Entomology 98: 12481258. PDF
  92. Kovanci O. B., J. F. Walgenbach, G. G. Kennedy and C. Schal. 2005. Effects of application rate and interval on the efficacy of sprayable pheromone for mating disruption of the oriental fruit moth Grapholita molesta . Phytoparasitica 33: 334342. PDF
  93. Lazebnaya I.V., S.K. Semenova, O.E. Lazebnyi, C. Schal and D.V. Mukha. 2005. Nuclear rDNA variability in laboratory strains of the German cockroach Blattella germanica L. (Blattellidae). Russian Journal of Genetics 41: 468472. PDF
  94. Mukha D.V., V.A. Mysina and C. Schal. 2005. Characteristics of the structure of minor variants of external transcribed spacers of ribosomal DNA of the cockroach Blattella germanica. Doklady Biological Sciences 404: 348351. PDF
  95. Nojima S., C. Schal, F.X. Webster, R.G. Santangelo and W.L. Roelofs. 2005. Identification of the sex pheromone of the German cockroach, Blattella germanica. Science 307: 11041106. Link     Access the recommendation on F1000Prime
  96. Sorenson C. E., G. G. Kennedy, C. Schal, and J. F. Walgenbach. 2005. Geographical variation in pheromone response of the European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), in North Carolina: A 20-Y perspective. Journal of Economic Entomology 34: 1057–1062. PDF
  97. Williams G.M., H.M. Linker, M.G. Waldvogel, R.B. Leidy and C. Schal. 2005. Comparison of conventional and integrated pest management programs in public schools. Journal of Economic Entomology 98: 12751283. PDF
  98. Youngsteadt E., Y.L. Fan, B. Stay and C. Schal. 2005. Cuticular hydrocarbon synthesis and its maternal provisioning to embryos in the viviparous cockroach Diploptera punctata . Journal of Insect Physiology 51: 803809. PDF
  99. Arbes S.J., Jr., M. Sever, J. Mehta, J.C. Gore, C. Schal, B. Vaughn, H. Mitchell and D.C. Zeldin. 2004. Abatement of cockroach allergens (Bla g 1 and Bla g 2) in low-income urban housing. Month 12 continuation results. Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology 113: 109114. PDF
  100. Blomquist G. J., R. Jurenka, C. Schal and C. Tittiger. 2004. Biochemistry and molecular biology of pheromone production. In: Comprehensive Molecular Insect Science (L. Gilbert, K. Iatrou, S. Gill, Eds.), Volume 3, pp. 705751, Pergamon Press.
  101. Eliyahu D. K. Mori, W.S. Leal, and C. Schal 2004. Behavioral activity of stereoisomers and a new component of the contact sex pheromone of female German cockroach, Blatella germanica. Journal of Chemical Ecology 30: 18391848. PDF
  102. Fan Y., C. Schal, E.L. Vargo and A.G. Bagneres. 2004. Characterization of termite lipophorin and its involvement in hydrocarbon transport. Journal of Insect Physiology 50: 609620. PDF
  103. Gemeno C., L. Zurek, and C. Schal. 2004. Control of Herpomyces spp. (Ascomycetes: Laboulbeniales) infection in the wood cockroach, Parcoblatta latta (Dictyoptera: Blattodea: Blattellidae), with benomyl. Journal of Invertebrate Pathology 85: 132135. PDF
  104. Gemeno C. and C. Schal. 2004. Sex Pheromones of Cockroaches. In: Advances in Insect Chemical Ecology (R.T. Carde and J. Millar, Eds.), Chapter 6, pp. 179247, Cambridge University Press, New York. Cambridge Books.
  105. Gore J. C. and C. Schal 2004. Gene expression and tissue distribution of the major human allergen Bla g 1 in the German cockroach, Blattella germanica (L.) (Dictyoptera: Blattellidae). Journal of Medical Entomology 41: 953960. PDF
  106. Gore, J.C., and C. Schal 2004. Laboratory evaluation of boric acid-sugar solutions as baits for management of German cockroach infestations. Journal of Economic Entomology 97: 581587. PDF
  107. Gore, J.C., L. Zurek, R.G. Santangelo, S.M. Stringham, D.W. Watson and C. Schal. 2004. Water solutions of boric acid and sugar for management of German cockroach populations in livestock production systems. Journal of Economic Entomology 97: 715720. PDF
  108. Groot A., J. O'brien, J. Bennett, J. Kelly, R.G. Santangelo, C. Schal and F. Gould. 2004. Introgressing pheromone QTL between species: Towards an evolutionary understanding of differentiation in sexual communication. Journal of Chemical Ecology 30: 24952514. PDF
  109. Holbrook G.L. and C. Schal. 2004. Maternal investment affects offspring phenotypic plasticity in a viviparous cockroach. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, USA 101: 55955597. Link
  110. Zurek L. and C. Schal. 2004. Evaluation of the German cockroach, Blatella germanica, as a vector of verotoxigenic Escherichia coli F18 in confined swine production. Veterinary Microbiology 101: 263267. PDF
  111. Arbes S. J., Jr., M. Sever, J. Archer, E. H. Long, J. C. Gore, C. Schal, M. Walter, B. Nuebler, B. Vaughn, H. Mitchell, E. Liu, N. Collette, P. Adler and D. C. Zeldin. 2003. Abatement of cockroach allergen (Bla g 1) in low-income, urban housing:a randomized controlled trial. Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology 112: 339345. PDF (PDF of commentary by Peyton Eggleston).
  112. Fan Y., L. Zurek, M. J. Dykstra, and C. Schal. 2003. Hydrocarbon synthesis by enzymatically dissociated oenocytes of the abdominal integument of the German cockroach, Blattella germanica. Naturwissenschaften 90: 121126. PDF
  113. Gemeno C., W. S. Leal, K. Mori and C. Schal. 2003. Behavioral and electropysiological responses of the brownbanded cockroach, Supella longipalpa, to stereoisomers of its sex pheromone, supellapyrone. Journal of Chemical Ecology 29: 17691783. PDF
  114. Gemeno C., K. Snook, N. Benda and C. Schal. 2003. Behavioral and electrophysiological evidence for volatile sex pheromones in Parcoblatta wood cockroaches. Journal of Chemical Ecology 29: 3754. PDF
  115. Holbrook, G. L., J. Roebuck, C. B. Moore and C. Schal. 2003. Origin and extent of resistance to fipronil in the German cockroach, Blattella germanica (L.) (Dictyoptera: Blattellidae). Journal of Economic Entomology 96: 15481558. PDF
  116. Mukha D. V. and C. Schal. 2003. A Densovirus of German cockroach Blattella germanica: Detection, nucleotide sequence, and genome organization. Molecular Biology 37: 513523. PDF
  117. Schal C., Y. Fan and G. J. Blomquist. 2003. Regulation of pheromone biosynthesis, transport, and emission in cockroaches. In: Insect Pheromone Biochemistry and Molecular Biology (G. J. Blomquist and R. Vogt, Eds.), Ch. 10, pp. 283322, Academic Press, New York. PDF
  118. Trexler J. D., C. S. Apperson, C. Gemeno, M. J. Perich, D. Carlson and C. Schal. 2003. Field and laboratory evaluations of potential oviposition attractants for Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae). Journal of the American Mosquito Control Association 19: 228234. PDF
  119. Trexler J. D., C. S. Apperson, L. Zurek, C. Gemeno, C. Schal, M. Kaufman, E. Walker, D. W. Watson and L. Wallace. 2003. Role of bacteria in mediating the oviposition responses of Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae). Journal of Medical Entomology 40: 841848. PDF
  120. Zurek L., J. C. Gore, M. S. Stringham, D. W. Watson, M. G. Waldvogel and C. Schal. 2003. Boric acid dust as a component of an integrated cockroach management program in confined swine production. Journal of Economic Entomology 96: 13621366. PDF
  121. Fan Y., J. Chase, V. L. Sevala and C. Schal. 2002. Lipophorin-facilitated hydrocarbon uptake by oocytes in the German cockroach, Blattella germanica (L.). Journal of Experimental Biology 205: 781790. PDF
  122. Mukha D. V., B. M. Wiegmann and C. Schal. 2002. Evolution and phylogenetic information content of the ribosomal DNA repeat unit in the Blattodea(Insecta). Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology 32: 951960. PDF
  123. Mukha D.V., B.M. Wiegmann and C. Schal. 2002. Saltatory changes in the structure of the ribosomal DNA external transcribed spacer during the evolution of cockroaches of genus Blatella. Doklady Akademii nauk: A journal of the Russian Academy of Sciences. 387: 549552.
  124. Zurek L., D. W. Watson, S. B. Krasnoff and C. Schal. 2002. Effect of the Entomopathogenic fungus, Entomophthora muscae (Zygomycetes: Entomophthoraceae), on sex pheromone and other cuticular hydrocarbons of the house fly, Musca domestica. Journal of Invertebrate Pathology 80: 171–176. PDF
  125. Zurek L., D. W. Watson, and C. Schal. 2002. Synergism between Metarhizium anisopliae (Deuteromycota: Hyphomycetes) and boric acid against the German cockroach (Dictyoptera: Blattellidae). Biological Control 23: 296302. PDF
  126. Buczkowski G. and C. Schal. 2001. Method of insecticide delivery affects horizontal transfer of fipronil in the German cockroach (Dictyoptera: Blattellidae). Journal of Economic Entomology 94: 680685. PDF
  127. Buczkowski G. and C. Schal. 2001. Emetophagy: Fipronil-induced regurgitation of bait and its dissemination from German cockroach adults to nymphs. Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology 71: 147155. PDF
  128. Buczkowski G., R. J. Kopanic and C. Schal. 2001. Transfer of ingested insecticides among cockroaches: effects of active ingredient, bait formulation, and assay procedures. Journal of Economic Entomology 94: 12291236. PDF
  129. Kopanic R. J. Jr., G. L. Holbrook, V. Sevala and C. Schal. 2001. An adaptive benefit of facultative coprophagy in the German cockroach Blattella germanica (L.). Ecological Entomology 26: 154162. PDF
  130. Mpuru S., G. J. Blomquist, C. Schal, M. Roux, M. Kuenzli, G. Dusticier, J. -L. Clément and A. -G. Bagnères. 2001. Effect of age and sex on the production of internal and external hydrocarbons and pheromones in the housefly, Musca domestica. Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology 31: 139155. PDF
  131. Nalyanya G., D. Liang, R. J. Kopanic Jr. and C. Schal. 2001. Attractiveness of insecticide baits for cockroach control (Dictyoptera: Blattellidae): Laboratory and field studies. Journal of Economic Entomology 94: 686693. PDF
  132. Nalyanya G. and C. Schal. 2001. Evaluation of attractants for monitoring populations of the German cockroach (Dictyoptera: Blattellidae). Journal of Economic Entomology 94: 208214. PDF
  133. Schal, C., V. Sevala, M. de L. Capurro, T. E. Snyder, G. J. Blomquist, and A.-G. Bagnères. 2001. Tissue distribution and lipophorin transport of hydrocarbons and sex pheromones in the house fly, Musca domestica. Journal of Insect Science 1: 12 (11 p). PDF
  134. Zurek L., S. S. Denning, C. Schal and D. W. Watson. 2001. Vector competence of Musca domestica (Diptera: Muscidae) for Yersinia pseudotuberculosis. Journal of Medical Entomology 38: 333335. PDF
  135. Holbrook G. L., E. Armstrong, J. A. S. Bachmann, B. M. Deasy and C. Schal. 2000. Role of feeding in the reproductive "group effect" in females of the German cockroach Blattella germanica (L.). Journal of Insect Physiology 46: 941949. PDF
  136. Holbrook G. L., J. A. S. Bachmann and C. Schal. 2000. Effects of ovariectomy and mating on the activity of the corpora allata in adult female Blattella germanica (L.) (Dictyoptera:Blattellidae). Physiological Entomology 25: 2734. PDF (PDF of Letter to the Editor & Response).
  137. Mukha D. V., A. P. Sidorenko, I. V. Lazebnaya, B. M. Wiegmann and C. Schal. 2000. Analysis of intraspecies polymorphism in the ribosomal DNA cluster of the cockroach Blattella germanica. Insect Molecular Biology 9: 217222. PDF
  138. Nalyanya G., C. B. Moore and C. Schal. 2000. Integration of repellents, attractants, and insecticides in a "push-pull" strategy for managing German cockroach (Dictyoptera: Blattellidae) populations. Journal of Medical Entomology 37: 427434. PDF
  139. Sevala V., A. -G. Bagnères, M. Kuenzli, G. J. Blomquist and C. Schal. 2000. Cuticular hydrocarbons of the termite Zootermopsis nevadensis (Hagen): Caste differences and role of lipophorin in transport of hydrocarbons and hydrocarbon metabolites. Journal of Chemical Ecology 26: 765789. PDF
  140. Young H. P., J. Larabee, A. Gibbs and C. Schal. 2000. Relationship between tissue-specific hydrocarbon profiles and their melting temperatures in the cockroach Blattella germanica (L.). Journal of Chemical Ecology 26: 12451263. PDF
  141. Zurek L., C. Schal and D. W. Watson. 2000. Diversity and contribution of the intestinal bacterial community to the development of Musca domestica (Diptera: Muscidae) larvae. Journal of Medical Entomology 37: 924-928. PDF
  142. Holbrook G. L., J. Roebuck, C. B. Moore and C. Schal. 1999. Prevalence and magnitude of insecticide resistance in the German cockroach (Dictyoptera, Blattellidae). In: Proceedings of the 3rd International Conference on Urban Pests (W. H. Robinson, F. Rettich and G. W. Rambo, eds.), Grafické Závody Hronov, Czech Republic, pp. 141-145. PDF
  143. Kopanic R. J. Jr. and C. Schal. 1999. Coprophagy facilitates horizontal transmission of bait among cockroaches (Dictyoptera: Blattellidae). Environmental Entomology 28: 431-438. PDF
  144. Mukha D. V., B. M. Wiegmann and C. Schal. 1999. Saltatory changes in the ribosomal gene clusters during evolution of Cockroaches of the GenusBlattella. Doklady Akademii nauk: A journal of the Russian Academy of Sciences 364: 38-43. PDF
  145. Pearson G.A. and C. Schal. 1999. Electroantennogram responses of both sexes of grape root borer (Lepidoptera: Sesiidae) to synthetic female sex pheromone. Environmental Entomology 28: 943-946. PDF
  146. Sevala V., S. Shu, S. B. Ramaswamy and C. Schal. 1999. Lipophorin of female Blattella germanica: Characterization and relation to hemolymph titers of juvenile hormone and hydrocarbons. Journal of Insect Physiology 45: 431-441. PDF
  147. Young H. P, J. A. S. Bachmann and C. Schal. 1999. Food intake in Blattella germanica (L.) nymphs affects hydrocarbon synthesis and its allocation in adults between epicuticle and reproduction. Archives of Insect Biochemistry and Physiology 41: 214-224. PDF
  148. Young H. P, J. A. S. Bachmann, V. Sevala and C. Schal. 1999. Site of synthesis, tissue distribution, and lipophorin transport of hydrocarbons in Blattella germanica (L.) nymphs. Journal of Insect Physiology 45: 305-315. PDF
  149. Waldvogel M. G., C. B. Moore, G. W. Nalyanya, S. M. Stringham, D. W. Watson and C. Schal. 1999. Integrated cockroach (Dictyoptera: Blattellidae) management in confined swine production. In: Proceedings of the 3rd International Conference on Urban Pests (W. H. Robinson, F. Rettich and G. W. Rambo, Eds.), Grafické Závody Hronov, Czech Republic, pp. 183-188. PDF
  150. Chiang A.-S., G. L. Holbrook, H-W. Cheng and C. Schal. 1998. Neural control of cell size in the corpora allata during the reproductive cycle of the cockroach Diploptera punctata (Dictyoptera: Blaberidae). Invertebrate Reproduction and Development 33: 25-34.
  151. Holbrook G. L., A-S. Chiang, Y-J. Lee and C-Y. Lin and C. Schal. 1998. Juvenile hormone synthesis in relation to corpus allatum development in embryos of the viviparous cockroach Diploptera punctata. Invertebrate Reproduction and Development 33: 69-79. PDF
  152. Holbrook G. L and C. Schal. 1998. Social influences on larval development in the viviparous cockroach Diploptera punctata. Physiological Entomology 23: 121-130. PDF
  153. Liang D., A. Zhang, R. J. Kopanic Jr., W. Roelofs and C. Schal. 1998. Field and laboratory evaluation of female sex pheromone for detection, monitoring, and management of brownbanded cockroaches (Dictyoptera: Blattellidae). Journal of Economic Entomology 91: 480-485. PDF
  154. Schal C., V. Sevala and R. T. Cardé. 1998. Novel and highly specific transport of a volatile sex pheromone by hemolymph lipophorin in moths. Naturwissenschaften 85: 339-342. PDF
  155. Schal C, V. L. Sevala, H. P. Young and J.A.S. Bachmann. 1998. Synthesis and transport of hydrocarbons: cuticle and ovary as target tissues. American Zoologist 38: 382-393. PDF
  156. Tillman J. A., G. L. Holbrook, P. L. Dallara, C. Schal, D. L. Wood, G. J. Blomquist and S. J. Seybold. 1998. Endocrine regulation of de novo aggregation pheromone biosynthesis in the pine engraver, Ips pini (Say) (Coleoptera: Scolytidae). Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology 28: 705-715. PDF
  157. Trexler J. D., C. S. Apperson, and C. Schal. 1998. Laboratory and field evaluations of oviposition responses of Aedes lbopictus and Aedes triseriatus (Diptera: Culicidae) to oak leaf infusions. Journal of Medical Entomology 35: 967-976. PDF
  158. Holbrook G. L., A-S. Chiang and C. Schal. 1997. Improved conditions for culture of biosynthetically active cockroach corpora allata. In Vitro Cellular and Developmental Biology - Animal 33: 452-458. PDF
  159. Kopanic R. J. Jr. and C. Schal. 1997. Relative significance of direct ingestion and adult-mediated translocation of bait to German cockroach (Dictyoptera: Blattellidae) nymphs. Journal of Economic Entomology, Forum 90: 1073-1079. PDF
  160. Schal C., G. L. Holbrook, J. A. S. Bachmann and V. L. Sevala. 1997. Reproductive biology of the German cockroach, Blattella germanica: Juvenile hormone as a pleiotropic master regulator. Archives of Insect Biochemistry and Physiology 35: 405-426. PDF
  161. Sevala V. L., J. A. S. Bachmann and C. Schal. 1997. Lipophorin: A hemolymph juvenile hormone binding protein in the German cockroach, Blattella germanica. Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology 27: 663-670. PDF
  162. Trexler J. D., C. S. Apperson and C. Schal. 1997. Diel oviposition patterns of Aedes albopictus (Skuse) and Aedes triseriatus (Say) in the laboratory and the field. Journal of Vector Ecology 22: 64-70. PDF
  163. Young H. P. and C. Schal. 1997. Cuticular hydrocarbon synthesis in relation to feeding and developmental stage in Blattella germanica (L.) (Dictyoptera: Blattellidae) nymphs. Annals of the Entomological Society of America 90: 655-663. PDF
  164. Chiang A-S., G. L. Holbrook and C. Schal 1996. Development-activity relationships in nymphal corpora allata of Diploptera punctata. Physiological Entomology 21: 268-274. PDF
  165. Chiang A-S., W-H. Tsai, G. L. Holbrook and C. Schal. 1996. Control of cell proliferation in the corpora allata during the reproductive cycle of the cockroach Diploptera punctata. Archives of Insect Biochemistry and Physiology 32: 299-313. PDF
  166. Holbrook G. L., A-S. Chiang and C. Schal. 1996. Allatostatin inhibition and farnesol stimulation of corpus allatum activity in embryos of the viviparous cockroach, Diploptera punctata. Archives of Insect Biochemistry and Physiology 32: 341-352. PDF
  167. Kinscherf K. M., R. J. Steltenkamp, T. F. Connors and C. Schal. 1996. Benefits of cleaning products containing the repellent methyl neodecanamide against Blattella germanica (L.). International Pest Control 38: 88-91. PDF (5.9MB)
  168. Roelofs W. L., C. Schal, F. X. Webster, R. E. Charlton and A. Zhang. April 9, 1996. Cockroach attractant. U. S. Pat. 5,505,951. PDF
  169. Schal C., D. Liang and G. J. Blomquist. 1996. Neural and endocrine control of pheromone production and release in cockroaches. In: Insect Pheromone Research: New Directions (R. T. Cardé and A. K. Minks, Eds.), Chapman and Hall, New York, pp. 3-20. PDF (9MB)
  170. Chiang A-S., W-H. Tsai and C. Schal C. 1995. Neural and hormonal regulation of corpora allata in the cockroach, Diploptera punctata. Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology 115: 51-57. PDF
  171. Gu X., D. Quilici, P. Juarez, G. J. Blomquist and C. Schal. 1995. Biosynthesis of hydrocarbons and contact sex pheromone and their transport by lipophorin in females of the German cockroach (Blattella germanica). Journal of Insect Physiology 41: 257-267. PDF
  172. Leal W. S., X. Shi, D. Liang, C. Schal and J. Meinwald. 1995. Application of chiral gas chromatography with electroantennographic detection to the determination of the stereochemistry of a cockroach sex pheromone. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, USA 92: 1033-1037. PDF
  173. Patt J. M., J. C. French, C. Schal, J. Leck and T. G. Hartman. 1995. The pollination biology of tuckahoe, Peltandra virginica (Araceae). American Journal of Botany 82: 1230-1240. PDF
  174. Schal C. and A-S. Chiang. 1995. Hormonal control of sexual receptivity in cockroaches. Experientia 51: 994-998. PDF
  175. Tsai W-H., G. L. Holbrook, C. Schal and A-S. Chiang. 1995. In vitro growth of corpora allata from Diploptera punctata. In Vitro Cellular and Developmental Biology 31: 542-546. PDF
  176. Chiang A-S. and C. Schal C. 1994. Cyclic volumetric changes in corpus allatum cells in relation to juvenile hormone biosynthesis during ovarian cycles in cockroaches. Archives of Insect Biochemistry and Physiology 27: 53-64. PDF
  177. Liang D. and C. Schal. 1994. Neural and hormonal regulation of calling behavior in Blattella germanica females. Journal of Insect Physiology 40: 251-258. PDF
  178. Roelofs W. L., C. Schal, F. X. Webster, R. E. Charlton and A. Zhang. March 22, 1994. Cockroach attractant. U. S. Pat. 5,296,220. PDF
  179. Schal C., X. Gu, E. L. Burns and G. J. Blomquist. 1994. Patterns of biosynthesis and accumulation of hydrocarbons and contact sex pheromone in the female German cockroach, Blattella germanica. Archives of Insect Biochemistry and Physiology 25: 375-391. PDF (PDF of Introduction to Special Issue of AIBP).
  180. Blomquist G. J., J. A. Tillman-Wall, L. Guo, D. R. Quilici, P. Gu and C. Schal. 1993. Hydrocarbon and hydrocarbon-derived sex pheromones in insects: Biochemistry and endocrine regulation. In: Insect Lipids: Chemistry, Biochemistry & Biology (D. W. Stanley-Samuelson and D. R. Nelson, Eds.), University of Nebraska Press, Lincoln, Nebraska, pp. 317-351. PDF (11MB)
  181. Charlton R. E., F. X. Webster, A. Zhang, C. Schal, D. Liang, I. Sreng and W. L. Roelofs. 1993. Sex pheromone of the brownbanded cockroach is an unusual dialkyl-substituted alpha-pyrone. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, USA 90: 10202-10205. Link
  182. Gadot M., M. P. Pener and C. Schal. 1993. Variability in juvenile hormone production by locust corpora allata kept in vitro for long periods. Physiological Entomology 18: 257-262. PDF
  183. Liang D. and C. Schal. 1993. Volatile sex pheromone in the female German cockroach. Experientia 49: 324-328. PDF
  184. Liang D. and C. Schal. 1993. Female calling behavior of the German cockroach, Blattella germanica (Dictyoptera: Blattellidae). Journal of Insect Behavior 6: 603-614. PDF
  185. Liang D. and C. Schal. 1993. Ultrastructure and maturation of a sex pheromone gland in the female German cockroach, Blattella germanica. Tissue & Cell 25: 763-776. PDF
  186. Schal C., A-S. Chiang, E. L. Burns, M. Gadot and R. A. Cooper. 1993. Role of the brain in juvenile hormone synthesis and oocyte development: Effects of dietary protein in the cockroach Blattella germanica (L.). Journal of Insect Physiology 39: 303-313. PDF
  187. Chase J., K. Toahara, G. D. Prestwich, C. Schal and G. J. Blomquist. 1992. Biosynthesis and endocrine control of the production of the German cockroach sex pheromone, 3,11-dimethylnonacosan-2-one. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, USA 89: 6050-6054. Link
  188. Chiang A-S., G. L. Holbrook and C. Schal. 1992. Postembryonic development of the corpora allata in relation to juvenile hormone biosynthesis in cockroaches. In: Fundamental and Applied Progress in Insect Juvenile Hormone Research (B. Mauchamp, F. Couillaud and J. C. Baehr, Eds.), INRA Press, France, pp. 219-230.
  189. Cooper R. A and C. Schal. 1992. Effects of protein type on development and reproduction of the German cockroach, Blattella germanica (L.) (Dictyoptera: Blattellidae). Entomologia experimentalis et Applicata 63: 123-134. PDF
  190. Cooper R. A and C. Schal. 1992. Differential development and reproduction of the German cockroach (Dictyoptera: Blattellidae) on three laboratory diets. Journal of Economic Entomology 85: 838-844. PDF
  191. Gadot M., C. Schal and M. P. Pener. 1992. Long-term in vitro incubation of insect corpora allata. In: Fundamental and Applied Progress in Insect Juvenile Hormone Research (B. Mauchamp, F. Couillaud and J. C. Baehr, Eds.), INRA Press, France, pp. 63-72. PDF (6.4MB)
  192. Patt J. M., T. G. Hartman, W. Creekmore, J. Elliott, C. Schal, J. Lech and R. T. Rosen. 1992. The floral odour of Peltandra virginica contains novel trimethyl-2,5-dioxabicyclo[3.2.1]nonanes. Phytochemistry 31: 487-491. PDF
  193. Schal C. 1992. Sulfluramid resistance and vapor toxicity in field-collected German cockroaches (Dictyoptera: Blattellidae). Journal of Medical Entomology 29: 207-215. PDF
  194. Schal C., D. Liang, L. K. Hazarika, R. E. Charlton and W. L. Roelofs. 1992. Site of pheromone production in female Supella longipalpa (F.) (Dictyoptera: Blattellidae): Behavioral, electrophysiological and morphological evidence. Annals of the Entomological Society of America 85: 605-611. PDF
  195. Steltenkamp R. J., R. L. Hamilton, R. A. Cooper and C. Schal. 1992. Alkyl and aryl neoalkanamides: Highly effective insect repellents. Journal of Medical Entomology, Forum 29: 141-149. PDF
  196. Burns E. L., A-S. Chiang, M. Gadot and C. Schal. 1991. Juvenile hormone regulation of the left colleterial gland in intact and ovariectomized Blattella germanica (L.) (Dictyoptera: Blattellidae). Journal of Insect Physiology 37: 401-405. PDF
  197. Chiang A-S., E. L. Burns and C. Schal. 1991. Ovarian regulation of cyclic changes in size and activity of corpus allatum cells in Blattella germanica. Journal of Insect Physiology 37: 907-917. PDF
  198. Chiang A-S., M. Gadot, E. L. Burns and C. Schal. 1991. Sexual differentiation of nymphal corpora allata and the effects of ovariectomy on gland morphometrics in adult Blattella germanica. Experientia 47: 81-83. PDF
  199. Chiang A-S., M. Gadot, E. L. Burns and C. Schal. 1991. Developmental regulation of juvenile hormone synthesis: Ovarian synchronization of volumetric changes in corpus allatum cells in cockroaches. Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology 75: 141-147. PDF
  200. Chiang A-S. and C. Schal. 1991. Correlation between size of corpus allatum and juvenile hormone biosynthesis in Blattella germanica adult females. Archives of Insect Biochemistry and Physiology 18: 37-44. PDF
  201. Corrigan J. E., J. H. Lashomb, M. L. May and C. Schal. 1991. Oviposition behavior of Edovum puttleri, reared on two hosts, Leptinotarsa decemlineata and L. texana. Entomologia experimentalis et Applicata 61: 139-147. PDF
  202. Gadot M., A-S. Chiang, E. L. Burns and C. Schal. 1991. Cyclic juvenile hormone biosynthesis in the cockroach Blattella germanica: Effects of ovariectomy and corpus allatum denervation. General and Comparative Endocrinology 82: 163-171. PDF
  203. Hamilton R. L. and C. Schal. 1991. Effects of dextrin and cellulose on feeding and reproduction in female brown-banded cockroaches, Supella longipalpa. Physiological Entomology 16: 57-64. PDF
  204. Schal C., E. L. Burns, M. Gadot, J. Chase and G. J. Blomquist 1991. Biochemistry and regulation of pheromone production in Blattella germanica (L.) (Dictyoptera: Blattellidae). Insect Biochemistry 21: 73-79. PDF
  205. Smith A. F. and C. Schal. 1991. Circadian calling behavior in the adult female brown-banded cockroach, Supella longipalpa (F.) (Dictyoptera: Blattellidae). Journal of Insect Behavior 4: 1-14. PDF
  206. Yin L. R. S., C. Schal and R. T. Cardé. 1991. Sex pheromone gland of the female tiger moth Holomelina lamae (Lepidoptera: Arctiidae). Canadian Journal of Zoology 69: 1916-1921. PDF
  207. Blomquist, G. J. and C. Schal. 1990. Biochemistry and endocrine regulation of sex pheromone production in the housefly and German cockroach. In: Molecular Insect Science (H. H. Hagedorn, J. G. Hildebrand, M. G. Kidwell and J. H. Law, Eds), Plenum Press, New York, pp. 231-242. PDF (8MB)
  208. Chase J., R. A. Jurenka, C. Schal, P. P. Halarnkar and G. J. Blomquist. 1990. Biosynthesis of methyl branched hydrocarbons: Precursors to the female contact sex pheromone of the German cockroach Blattella germanica (L.) (Orthoptera, Blattellidae). Insect Biochemistry 20: 149-156. PDF
  209. Chiang A., M. Gadot, E. L. Burns and C. Schal. 1990. Changes in number and size of corpus allatum cells of Blattella germanica during oocyte maturation. In: Insect Neurochemistry and Neurophysiology (A. B. Borkovec and E. P. Masler, Eds.), Humana Press, Clifton, pp. 317-320. PDF
  210. Chon T-S., D. Liang and C. Schal. 1990. Effects of mating and grouping on oocyte development and pheromone release activities in the female brown-banded cockroach, Supella longipalpa (F.) (Dictyoptera: Blattellidae). Environmental Entomology 19: 1716-1721. PDF
  211. Gadot M., A. Chiang, E. Burns and C. Schal. 1990. Patterns of corpora allata activity in ovariectomized Blattella germanica. In: Insect Neurochemistry and Neurophysiology (A. B. Borkovec and E. P. Masler, Eds.), Humana Press, Clifton, pp. 321-324. PDF
  212. Hamilton R. H., R. A. Cooper and C. Schal. 1990. The influence of nymphal and adult dietary protein on consumption and reproduction in female brown-banded cockroaches. Entomologia experimentalis et Applicata 55: 23-31. PDF
  213. Hamilton R. H. and C. Schal. 1990. Sublethal effects of chlorpyrifos-methyl on reproduction in female German cockroaches (Dictyoptera: Blattellidae). Journal of Economic Entomology 83: 441-443. PDF
  214. Liang D. and C. Schal. 1990. Effects of pheromone concentration and photoperiod on the behavioral response sequence to sex pheromone in the male brown-banded cockroach, Supella longipalpa. Journal of Insect Behavior 3: 211-223. PDF
  215. Liang D. and C. Schal. 1990. Circadian rhythmicity and development of the behavioural response to sex pheromone in male brown-banded cockroaches, Supella longipalpa. Physiological Entomology 15: 355-361. PDF
  216. Schal C., E. Burns and G. J. Blomquist. 1990. Endocrine regulation of female contact sex pheromone production in the German cockroach, Blattella germanica (L.). Physiological Entomology 15: 81-91. PDF
  217. Schal C., E. L. Burns, R. A. Jurenka and G. J. Blomquist. 1990. A new component of the sex pheromone of Blattella germanica (Dictyoptera: Blattellidae), and interaction with other pheromone components. Journal of Chemical Ecology 16: 1997-2008. PDF
  218. Schal C. and R. Hamilton. 1990. Integrated suppression of synanthropic cockroaches. Annual Review of Entomology 35: 521-551. PDF
  219. Schal C. and A. Smith. 1990. Neuroendocrine regulation of pheromone synthesis and release in cockroaches. In: Cockroaches As Models for Neurobiology: Applications in Biomedical Research (I. Huber, B. R. Rao, E. P. Masler, Eds.), CRC Press, Boca Raton, Vol. II, pp. 179-200. PDF (13MB)
  220. Smith A. F. and C. Schal. 1990. Corpora allata control of pheromone production and release in the female brown-banded cockroach, Supella longipalpa (F.). Journal of Insect Physiology 36: 251-257. PDF
  221. Smith A. F. and C. Schal. 1990. The physiological basis for the termination of calling in the female brown-banded cockroach, Supella longipalpa (F.). Journal of Insect Physiology 36: 369-373. PDF
  222. Chiang A., M. Gadot and C. Schal. 1989. Morphometric analysis of the corpus allatum cells in adult females of three cockroach species. Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology 67: 179-184. PDF
  223. Gadot M., A-S. Chiang and C. Schal. 1989. Farnesoic acid-stimulated rates of juvenile hormone biosynthesis during the gonotrophic cycle in Blattella germanica. Journal of Insect Physiology 35: 537-542. PDF
  224. Gadot M., E. Burns and C. Schal. 1989. Juvenile hormone biosynthesis and oocyte development in adult female Blattella germanica: Effects of grouping and mating. Archives of Insect Biochemistry and Physiology 11: 189-200. PDF
  225. Jurenka R. A., C. Schal, E. Burns, J. Chase and G. J. Blomquist. 1989. Structural correlation between the cuticular hydrocarbons and the female contact sex pheromone of the German cockroach Blattella germanica (L.). Journal of Chemical Ecology 15: 939-949. PDF
  226. Smith A. F., K. Yagi, S. S. Tobe and C. Schal. 1989. In vitro rates of juvenile hormone biosynthesis in adult virgin and mated female Supella longipalpa (F.) over two reproductive cycles. Journal of Insect Physiology 35: 781-785. PDF
  227. Hamilton R.L. and C. Schal. 1988. Effects of dietary protein levels on reproduction and food consumption in the German cockroach (Dictyoptera: Blattellidae). Annals of the Entomological Society of America 81: 969-976. PDF
  228. Schal C. 1988. Relation among efficacy of insecticides, resistance levels, and sanitation, in the control of the German cockroach (Dictyoptera: Blattellidae). Journal of Economic Entomology 81: 536-544. PDF
  229. Schal C. 1988. Regulation of pheromone synthesis and release in cockroaches. In: Endocrinological Frontiers in Physiological Insect Ecology ( F. Sehnal, A. Zabza, D. L. Denlinger, Eds.), Technical University of Wroclaw Press, Poland, pp. 695-700. PDF
  230. Elkinton J.S., C. Schal, T. Ono and R. T. Cardé. 1987. Pheromone puff trajectory and upwind flight of male gypsy moths in a forest. Physiological Entomology 12: 399-406. PDF
  231. Schal C., R. Charlton and R. T. Cardé. 1987. Temporal patterns of sex pheromone titers and release rates in Holomelina lamae (Lepidoptera: Arctiidae). Journal of Chemical Ecology 13: 1115-1129. PDF
  232. Schal C. and W. J. Bell. 1986. Vertical community structure and resource utilization in some neotropical rain-forest cockroaches. Ecological Entomology 11: 411-423. PDF
  233. Schal C. and R. T. Cardé. 1986. Effects of temperature and light on calling behavior in the tiger moth Holomelina lamae (Freeman) (Lepidoptera: Arctiidae). Physiological Entomology 11: 75-87. PDF
  234. Webster R., R. Charlton, C. Schal and R. T. Cardé. 1986. High efficiency pheromone trap for monitoring the European Corn Borer. Journal of Economic Entomology 79: 1139-1142. PDF
  235. Schal C. and W. J. Bell. 1985. Calling behavior in female cockroaches (Dictyoptera: Blattaria). Journal of the Kansas Entomological Society 58: 261-268. PDF
  236. Schal C. and R. T. Cardé. 1985. Rhythmic extrusion of pheromone gland elevates pheromone release rate. Experientia 41: 1617-1619. PDF
  237. Schal C., J.-Y. Gautier and W. J. Bell. 1984. Behavioural ecology of cockroaches. Biological Reviews of the Cambridge Philosophical Society 59: 209-254. PDF
  238. Schal C. 1983. Behavioral and Physiological Ecology and Community Structure of Tropical Cockroaches (Dictyoptera: Blattaria). Ph.D. Dissertation, 130 p. (Major professor: Dr. William J. Bell). Link
  239. Schal C. 1983. Blaberus giganteus and Xestoblatta hamata: Examples of behavioral diversity of tropical cockroaches. In: Costa Rican Natural History (D. Janzen, Ed.), University of Chicago Press, pp. 693-696. PDF
  240. Schal C. and W. J. Bell. 1983. Determinants of dominant-subordinate interactions in males of the cockroach Nauphoeta cinerea. Biology of Behaviour 8: 117-139. PDF
  241. Schal C., T. R. Tobin, J. L. Surber, G. Vogel, M. K. Tourtellot, R. Leban, R. Sizemore and W. J. Bell. 1983. Search strategy of sex pheromone stimulated male German cockroaches. Journal of Insect Physiology 29: 575-579. PDF
  242. Schal C. 1982. Intraspecific vertical stratification as a mate-finding mechanism in tropical cockroaches. Science 215: 1405-1407. PDF
  243. Schal C. and W. J. Bell. 1982. Ecological correlates of paternal investment of urates in a tropical cockroach. Science 281: 171-173. PDF
  244. Schal C., J. Fraser and W. J. Bell. 1982. Disturbance stridulation and chemical defence in nymphs of the tropical cockroach Megaloblatta blaberoides. Journal of Insect Physiology 28: 541-552. PDF
  245. Fisk F. W. and C. Schal. 1981. Notes on new species of epilamprine cockroaches from Costa Rica and Panama (Blattaria: Blaberidae). Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington 83: 694-706. PDF
  246. Bell W. J. and C. Schal. 1980. Patterns of turning in courtship orientation in the male German cockroach. Animal Behaviour 28: 86-94. PDF