Agriculture and Life Sciences
North Carolina State University
Raleigh, North Carolina
Animal agriculture contributes more than 55% of the total annual agricultural income in North Carolina. The basis for all of animal agriculture is a dynamic feed milling industry that provides the nutrients essential for animal growth and reproduction. Sustainability of animal agriculture in North Carolina depends upon efficient feed utilization and minimization of environmental impact. The College of Agriculture and Life Sciences (CALS) at North Carolina State University (NC State) has embarked upon a Feed Milling Education Initiative to support this key industry. The College of Agriculture and Life Sciences Feed Milling Education Initiative is designed to develop well-educated men and women for leadership roles in the feed milling industry and to provide the underlying educational and research programs required to support a sustainable industry. The educational emphasis will be directed at undergraduate and graduate students as well as the needs of industry clientele currently working in our many feed mills.
The College of Agriculture and Life Sciences Feed Milling Education Initiative is comprised of the following three components:
The Academic Program has been initiated with the approval of a Minor in Feed Milling effective Fall Semester 2001 and acceptance of several students into the minor. The basic structure that will house the Feed Mill Educational Unit at the Lake Wheeler Road Field Laboratory was completed in the Fall of 2003. The Feed Milling Center concept is currently under development.
To support the successful development of the Feed
Milling Education Initiative, a Capital Campaign with a goal of raising
$2 million in cash and equipment will be conducted over the three-year
period from 2003-2006.
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Plans are well underway to convert the historic Yates Mill, pond, and wetlands adjacent to the Lake Wheeler Road Field Laboratory into a Wake County Ecological Park that has environmental education as its purpose. The emphasis of this park will be on youth education with anticipated full involvement by the College of Agriculture and Life Sciences in this effort. The surrounding urban areas of Raleigh, Cary, Garner, and the Swift Creek-Middle Creek community continue to grow and create demands upon the undeveloped acreage of the Lake Wheeler Road Field Laboratory. The Lake Wheeler Road Field Laboratory remains one of the few "open areas" in the Raleigh area. Further, the fact that many educational programs dealing with agriculture are located there has provided the College of Agriculture and Life Sciences with a unique opportunity to develop a premiere educational program based upon the contributions of animal agriculture to the local environment and society and to showcase a harmonious interface of agriculture and urban life. The educational outreach will extend to students, agriculturalists, the scientific community, and the general public as a whole.
The Feed Mill Educational Unit is being planned as an integral part of the environmentally sound "mini-integration" involving present animal production and crop production units at the Lake Wheeler Road Field Laboratory, the Waste Processing Facility of the Animal & Poultry Waste Management Center, and other facilities and programs within the College of Agriculture and Life Sciences as outlined below. It will serve as an excellent teaching model of good natural resource stewardship practices and how they can be combined with efficient, integrated and sustainable animal agriculture.
The Animal and Poultry Waste Management (A&PWM) Center provides a number of opportunities to coordinate activities with the Feed Mill Educational Unit. One of the primary missions of the A&PWM Center is to develop methods to convert byproducts (animal mortalities, offal, hatchery wastes, plant components not normally harvested, etc.) into value-added coproducts for the animal or plant industries. Because such animal byproducts represent 30 percent of the total live weight of the animals produced, it is extremely important that recycling technologies be further developed. The extremely high temperatures produced during milling render the coproducts produced biologically safe for re-entry into the feed stream.
Establishment of a new major degree program within the University of North Carolina system is a lengthy process. Due to monetary constraints any new major requires considerable justification regarding the need. Further, any new program, as well as continuing programs, must be constantly justified if the number of students graduating annually is low. This is presently the case for a number of degree programs in traditional agricultural areas. Therefore, a more logical way to proceed was to first develop a minor that could be used by students to receive academic training and certification in the specific topical area of feed milling. Development of the minor required the identification of courses that were presently being taught that could be applied to the topical area. In the case of feed milling there are a good number of courses currently available that have direct applicability. These are described in the text below. In addition, there has recently been developed a general survey course in feed milling that can serve as the initial core course. Collectively these courses will serve as the basic preparation for an actual feed milling work experience that can be structured within the External Learning Experience summer internship course. It is anticipated that a number of commercial feed mills will cooperate with the College of Agriculture and Life Sciences to provide these summer work experiences for our students. In the longer term, it is envisioned that interested feed milling enterprises may create full-time positions that can be filled on a rotating basis by Co-Op students. This Co-Op model is used in other curricula at NC State. The minor was approved effective Fall Semester 2001.
One weakness of the minor approach is the relatively low number of credit hours required. However, it is anticipated that this academic program will evolve rapidly in the direction of a feed milling “concentration” that will require a greater number of credit hours. This will ensure that students are exposed to a more complete program. A record of successful placement of graduates from the Feed Milling Minor in jobs with feed milling enterprises at competitive salaries will provide the necessary stimulus and justification for this evolution. A Feed Mill Management Concentration may be developed within any or all of the three present participating departments. Further, at least two more courses in Feed Milling will be needed along with a revision of present courses to adequately cover required materials. This would create a core curriculum of three courses and supporting courses. This will require the addition of a new faculty member specifically educated in the feed milling area.
The Inter-Departmental Feed Mill Minor is especially important to the North Carolina agricultural economy. Currently, there are limited educational programs in the United States that specifically provide a balanced program in animal feed milling technology and animal and poultry management. Currently, North Carolina is a leading animal feed producer with over 12 million tons of animal feed manufactured each year. Modern feed mills are complex and technologically advanced, requiring well-educated graduates to manage them. There is presently an acute shortage of such graduates that could be met by an appropriate educational program. The Inter-Departmental minor will allow students an opportunity to acquire the knowledge they need to enter this field while providing employers with a supply of much needed people. Students may consult the Departmental Teaching Coordinator in Animal Science, Biological and Agricultural Engineering or Poultry Science to initiate the minor program. Students in this minor program, with the help of their primary faculty advisor, can also request advising assistance from a designated Departmental Feed Mill Minor advisor. The student must submit an Application for a Minor to the Departmental Teaching Coordinator in Animal Science, Biological and Agricultural Engineering or Poultry Science. These interdepartmental forms will be available in each departmental teaching coordinator’s offices. Students from other departments within the College of Agriculture and Life Sciences or the university as a whole may submit the necessary written materials through any of the three departments listed above. Return to top.
The Inter-Departmental Minor in Feed Milling will provide knowledge needed for entry level in feed mill management and operation. Students may select courses to emphasize nutrition, processing, management or engineering processes.
A minimum of 15 credit hours from the prescribed list and a grade of C-or better in these courses is required to receive a Minor in Feed Milling but the overall GPA of the minor must be a minimum of 2.0. The intent is to make the initial program as flexible as possible.
ANS 150 Introduction to Animal Science 4(3‑3) F,S
Fundamental principles of animal management including contributions of animals and animal products to humanity, application of science to animal production, and issues regarding animal production.
BAE 101 Introduction to Biological Engineering and Computing 3(2-2) F
Prerequisite: MA 141
Introduction to areas of concentration within Biological Engineering, and example engineering problems from each. Departmental and campus-wide computing facilities will be examined.
PO 201 Poultry Science and Production 4(3-3) F,S
Prerequisite: BIO 125
Fundamental principles of broiler, turkey and egg production including poultry physiology, breeding, incubation, housing, nutrition, disease control, management and marketing.
PO (ANS) 425 Feed Mill Management and Feed Formulation 3(2-3) S
Prerequisite: PO (ANS, NTR) 415 or ANS 230; CH 220 or 221
Feed mill management, feed ingredient purchasing, inventory, storage, and quality evaluation, computerized feed formulation, feeding programs for poultry and swine, feed mill design, equipment, maintenance, operation, safety, state and federal regulations pertaining to feed manufacturing.
ANS-BAE-PO 492 External Learning Experience 2-3 credit hours
4. All minor students must take a minimum of two other courses from the following:
ARE 304 Agribusiness Management 3(3‑0) S
Prerequisite: ARE 201 or EC 201
Management decision‑making by food, fiber, horticulture, and forestry firms. Emphasis on current agribusiness topics such as information utilization, strategic planning, organization structures, competitor intelligence, pricing, leadership, crisis management, ethics, and human resource management. Business communications, agribusiness case studies, and a computerized management simulation game.
ARE 311 Agricultural Markets 3(3‑0) F,S
Prerequisite: ARE 201 or EC 201
Agricultural marketing system and economic forces affecting its structure and efficiency. Public policy issues affecting agricultural markets. Emphasis on the analysis of current sources of agricultural market information. Marketing and storage problems over time; futures markets and the management of risk; transportation and international trade; government agricultural programs.
BAE 201 Shop Processes and Management 3(2‑3) F,S
Safety practices, materials, equipment, processes, procedures, and management techniques related to operation and maintenance of a mechanized agricultural enterprise or agriculture‑related industry. Theory and practice through basic shop operations and procedures.
BAE 202 Intro to Bio and Ag Engineering Methods 3(1‑0) S
Prerequisite: BAE 101
Basic design and problem solving methodology for Biological Engineering. Visualization skills, computer-aided 3-D solid modeling of parts, 3-D assembly of solid part geometries, computation of mass properties, 2-D engineering drawings, engineering design process, safety, tools, and fabrication processes and design, and hands-on shop fabrication of semester project.
BAE 333 Processing Agricultural Products 4(3‑3) S
Prerequisite: PY 212
Application of the principles of fluid flow, heat transfer, refrigeration, psychrometrics, and materials handling to the processing of agricultural products. Pump sizing, heat exchanger selection, refrigeration analyses, fan sizing, crop drying, and selection of materials handling equipment.
BAE 343 Agricultural Electrification 3(3‑0) F Return to top.
Co-requisite: PY 212
Practical and efficient use of electrical energy for agricultural and home application. Energy conservation, electric rates, farm and house wiring, circuit design, single‑phase and three‑phase distribution systems, electric motors, lighting, space and water heating, electric controls, safety and protective devices.
BAE 344 Circuits and Controls 1(0-3) F
Co-requisite: PY 212; BAE 343 or ECE 211
Applied laboratory covering energy conservation, farm and home wiring, circuit design, single-phase and three-phase distribution systems, electric motors, lighting, heating, electric controls, safety and protective devices, and home water systems.
BAE 432 Ag and Environmental Safety and Health 3(3-0) F
Prerequisite: Junior standing and 6 hrs CALS Group A, B or C Electives
Safety and health issues for agricultural and environmental occupations. Hazard recognition, injury and illness prevention, regulations, and safety and health management strategies for agricultural production, chemical handling, and waste management. Environmental factors that affect human health and safety.
BUS 330 Human Resource Management 3(3-0) F,S
Prerequisite: Sophomore standing
The systematic principles for managing the human resource component of organizations. Topics include: environmental influences on planning, recruitment, and selection; managing workforce diversity; developing effectiveness and enhancing productivity; compensation, benefits, and security; and strengthening employee-management relations.
FS 495I Special Topics - HACCP 2 credit hours
Examines issues related to the development of HACCP programs.
PO (ANS) (NTR) 415 Comparative Nutrition 3(3-0) F
Prerequisite: CH 220 or 221 and 223
Principles of nutrition, including the classification of nutrients and the nutrient requirements of and metabolism by different species for health, growth, maintenance and productive functions.
A new faculty position to provide leadership to the College of Agriculture and Life Sciences Feed Milling Education Initiative will be requested from the University of North Carolina System. The scope of the responsibilities of the faculty position will depend upon the feed mill facilities that can be developed. Financial support from the industry for this initiative would facilitate the timely development of this program that will have both on-campus and outreach impacts.
Outreach Programs for Industry Clientele
Workshops, distance education classes, and feed production schools utilizing the planned facilities are anticipated to serve the continuing education needs of the feed milling industry.
Benefits and Educational Impacts
A comprehensive schematic plan was developed for the phased construction of a College of Agriculture and Life Sciences Feed Mill Educational Unit. Approximately $2.4 million, appropriated by the 1997 legislative session of the North Carolina General Assembly and another $300,000 from the 2001 Bond Package, was available for construction of the basic structure. To maximize the effectiveness of these funds construction documents were developed for a basic mill structure and site work as a bid package separate from the milling facilities and equipment. After several delays due to adverse weather and economic conditions, a general contractor was hired for construction of the buildings, infrastructure, and site work that was completed in the fall of 2003. Local millwrights, electricians, tradesmen, etc. will now be hired to install NC State purchased and/or industry-donated equipment when all the necessary equipment has been acquired. This strategy will require a longer period of construction than a turn-key job but will ensure that qualified contractors are responsible for the specialized as well as general requirements of this unique facility at the lowest possible cost. Further, direct purchasing of the milling infrastructure by NC State will hopefully maximize the possibilities for discounts, gifts-in-kind, and donations from vendors and supporters. The North Carolina Agricultural Foundation will provide assistance to individuals or companies who would like to arrange a tax-advantaged contribution or gift-in-kind. Return to top.
The feed milling facility will be officially named the Feed Mill Educational Unit and as envisioned will meet a number of educational objectives for animal agriculture related programs such as:
Feed Mill Educational Unit Facility Design and Features
College of Agriculture and Life Sciences Feed Production Requirements
A 150-ton per week capacity mill should meet the production needs of the College of Agriculture and Life Sciences animal units. There will be nearly 100 unique feed formulas typically in use at any given time. It is desired that the feed production needs be met in three working days per week, allowing two days per week for research, educational, and maintenance activities.
At the rear of this document there is a list of required equipment, elevations and diagrams that detail the Feed Mill Educational Unit plan. A complete set of plans are available by request.
Feed Mill Educational Unit Planning Committee
The Feed Mill Educational Unit planning committee membership was developed from several constituencies that include the College of Agriculture and Life Sciences administration (CALS), Animal Science (ANS), Biological and Agricultural Engineering (BAE), Facilities Planning and Design (FPD), Poultry Science (PO), and University Field Laboratories (UFL). Return to top.
Walker "Mac" McNeill UFL
Bob Bottcher BAE (deceased) Jack Odle ANS
Richard Currin UFL Carm Parkhurst PO
Peter Ferket PO Matt Poore ANS
Jim Garlich PO (retired) Jerry Spears ANS
Jesse Grimes PO Glenn Thomas FPD
Winston Hagler PO Eric van Heugten ANS
Bill Hedspeth UFL Lon Whitlow ANS
George Kriz CALS (retired) John Brake PO, Chair
Wagester and Lease, Pittsburgh, PA
Architect: Brown and Jones Architects, Inc., Raleigh
Site Design: George Finch/Boney and Associates, Raleigh
Feed Milling Center
A Feed Milling Center concept is currently under development. A Center within the University of North Carolina (UNC) system is organized from dues-paying members that comprise the Board of Directors for the Center. There are full members and associate members of the Center based upon the level of dues that are contributed. The full members make the decisions as to where member fees are spent to support educational and research initiatives. Full members share in semi-exclusive licenses to any new intellectual property as well. In the case of the Feed Milling Center it is envisioned that there will be Academic, Extension Education, and Research initiatives that will involve issues such as new coursework, Extension Educational Programs and Workshops, and investigations of optimum feed milling practices. Representatives of companies that make contributions at the Platinum recognition level will be invited to participate as Charter Members for a limited time in the Feed Milling Center at no cost. The Charter Members will help guide the development of the Feed Milling Center as members of the overall Advisory Board .
To insure good communications and close working relationships with our industry clientele there will be an Advisory Board constituted that fairly represents the many interests that support and benefit from this Initiative. Companies that are Platinum level contributors will be invited to name a representative. The Advisory Board members will have an opportunity to provide direction and advice to the leadership of the Initiative.
To support the successful development of the Feed Milling Education Initiative a Capital Campaign with a goal of raising $1 million in cash as well as donations of equipment will be conducted over the three-year period from 2003-2006. Companies and individuals may make three-year pledges of cash donations or equipment through the North Carolina Agricultural Foundation that has pledged to match the first $750,000 of contributions from industry with $250,000. Companies that make contributions qualifying for the Platinum recognition level will be invited to have representation on the Advisory Board for the overall CALS Feed Mill Educational Initiative and to participate in the Feed Milling Center without charge for a limited time (to be determined). This Charter Membership will become effective when the Center is approved by the UNC General Administration.
Capital Campaign Chair
Dan A. Warren, Past Chairman
NC Agricultural Foundation, Inc.
J.A. Warren & Company
Capital Campaign Cumulative Contributor Recognition Levels
Naming Rights Level $ 1 Million
Less than $ 25,000
Less than $ 250
Further information may be obtained from the inter-departmental faculty leaders:
Dr. Jack Odle (Animal Science)
Dr. Gerry Baughman (Biological and Agricultural Engineering)
Dr. John Brake (Poultry Science)
CALS Feed Milling Education Initiative
c/o Dr. John T. Brake
Campus Box 7608
NC State University
Raleigh, NC 27695-7608
The type of equipment listed below will need to be either purchased or donated in order to meet the projected educational mission of the Feed Mill Educational Unit. The following list is intended to provide a general overview of requirements without being exhaustive in detail. Individuals or companies interested in any of the items should make an inquiry for full details and specifications. Full bid-type specifications are available by request. Return to top.
A CPM Model 560 Whirly Feed Cleaner was donated by Perdue Farms, Inc. and completely reconditioned and painted at no cost to NCSU by California Pellet Mill (CPM)/Roskamp-Champion.
Twenty-one slide gates ranging from 10 to 20 that will be either manual or air-operated and five diverters ranging from 10 to 13 that will be manually operated were purchased from Sidney Manufacturing Company.
One Champion Model 2022 hammermill with a 60 HP motor rated at 7 TPH capacity with US #2 corn at a 600 micron mean particle size with air swept gravity discharge, vibration switch, door limits, and inlet chute with double step ceramic plate magnet was purchased from CPM/Roskamp-Champion.
One RMS rollermill rated at 7 TPH capacity with US #2 corn at a 1200 micron mean particle size with air swept gravity discharge and manual roll adjustment. It has a one year unconditional guarantee and was donated by RMS Roller-Grinder, Sioux Falls, SD.
Twenty-two Bindicator rotary level indicators, three diaphragm level indicators, and one capacitor level indicator were purchased from Process Solutions. Return to top.
One twenty-bin electric microingredient system with stainless steel bins for in-floor installation was purchased from Abel Manufacturing Company.
Plant Control System and Monitoring
One PC/PLC based control system including automated and manual routing, receiving, grinding, batching, and pelleting is still subject to bid or available for donation .
Syngenta has donated the process remote monitoring and sensing equipment.
Two dry flow type liquid coaters with flow rates of 2 TPH and 11 TPH, for the two main pellet lines, will apply liquid fat at 2% to 12% of the dry flow rate and will have the capability to apply feed enzymes at appropriate rates as required. Each installation will include a pre-surge bin with high and low level monitor, weigh feeder, spray chamber, a blending screw, and controls that will be supplied as part of the plant control system. These units were purchased from Hayes & Stolz Industrial Manufacturing Company.
One mass flow meter at 35 GPM and one mass flow meter at 5 GPM for liquid fat were purchased from O.E.C. Fluid Handling, Inc.
One fifty-pound Hobart style vertical mixer for small specialty batches has not yet been purchased and could be donated .
One 500-pound capacity horizontal single shaft batch mixer with liquid manifold and single gate discharge that was designed for a two-minute total mix time with a CV of 7 or less with mash feed (35 to 40 PCF) as well as premix materials was purchased from Scott Equipment Company.
One 4000-pound capacity horizontal twin shaft batch mixer with liquid manifold, full drop bottom discharge, 115 CF surge, and discharge drag conveyor rated at 1,500 CFH that was designed for a two-minute total mix time with a CV of 7 or less with mash feed (35 to 40 PCF) was purchased from Hayes & Stolz Industrial Manufacturing Company.
Three pelleting systems rated at 500-pound per hour, 1 TPH, and 10 TPH producing an 11/64 diameter pellet with a minimum PDI rating of 80 at the cooler discharge will be utilized. The 1 TPH and 10 TPH systems will include a variable speed stainless steel feeder screw, a stainless steel conditioner to achieve 210 degree F assuming a mash feed temperature of 75 degree F and mash feed moisture of 12%. Each system will have a steam harness with a gate valve, pressure regulator, and pneumatically operated flow control valve and pneumatically operated shutoff valve. The 500-pound per hour pellet mill system was manufactured by Blount and donated by Holly Farms Poultry Industries (now Tyson). The 1 TPH pellet mill system was purchased from CPM and the 10 TPH pellet mill system was purchased from Bliss Industries.
The 500-pound per pellet mill has a double pass horizontal cooler as part of the package unit. Each of the other units has a separate counterflow cooler to cool pellets within 10 degrees of ambient temperature complete with stainless steel construction, manual clean out, inlet spreader, automatic air damper, and basic control panel. These counterflow coolers were purchased from Geelen Counterflow.
The 1 TPH and 10 TPH units have pellet crumblers with manual roll adjustment and manual bypass as well as an inlet roll feeder that were purchased from CPM/Roskamp-Champion. Return to top.
One rotary gear pump rated at 35 GPM@40 PSI for animal fat and one rotary gear pump rated at 3 GPM@75 PSI for animal fat were purchased from Liquid Handling Equipment Company.
Liquid Application Systems
There will be pumps and spray systems appropriate for typical liquid ingredient and enzyme applications and will be either integrated into the fat coater systems or installed separately. For example, Novus International has donated both a plug and play methionine liquid system and unlimited supply of liquid methionine for use at the NCSU feed mill.
We are looking for similar systems that are appropriate to our needs to be donated .
Eleven feeder screw conveyors with variable pitch flared trough inlets and double pitch flighting at the discharge varying from 9 to 12 and six transfer screw conveyors varying from 9 to 12 were purchased from Screw Conveyor Corporation.
Six transfer drag conveyors both horizontal and with a sweep sections varying from 300 CFH to 1,800 CFH were purchased from Sidney Manufacturing Company.
Five turnheads for 8 spouting with electric activation and controls were purchased from
Hayes & Stolz Industrial Manufacturing Company.
One 1,800 CFH bucket elevator rated @45 PCF for discharge at 78'0, one 1,500 CFH bucket elevator rated @40 PCF for discharge at 76'6, and two 300 CFH bucket elevators rated @40 PCF for discharge at 766 were purchased from Sweet Manufacturing Company.
Two portable non-powered Kelley Duplex bulk weigh buggies with 1000-pound capacity and quick opening floor level discharge gate were purchased from Duplex Mill & Manufacturing Company.
Tote Bag Handling System
A tote bag handling system was donated by Degussa. Return to top.
One baghouse with hopper ay 3'0 discharge height, pulse air cleaning and 1,175 square foot cloth area was purchased from Kice Industries.
One stainless steel high efficiency cyclone rated at 1,950 ACFM (180 F) and one stainless steel high efficiency cyclone rated at 3,900 ACFM (180 F) were purchased from
One radial blade fan rated at 4,700 ACFM (100 F) @20W.C., one radial blade fan rated at 1,950 ACFM (180 F) @ 20W.C., and one radial blade fan rated at 3,900 ACFM (180 F) @20W.C. were purchased from Kice Industries.
Two 12 x 10 rotary airlock with cast iron housing and 4-vane carbon steel rotor, and one 12 x 10 rotary airlock with cast iron housing and 6-vane carbon steel rotor
were purchased from Kice Industries.
One Precision Boiler Company 50 HP self-contained high-pressure electric (480V) steam boiler (150 PSIG) will be used to supply steam. The boiler and feed water system with receiver tank, two centrifugal pumps, and one blow down separator with temperature regulator valve package were purchased from Brady Services.
One Gardner Denver 10 HP rotary screw compressor with one 100 gallon ASME vertical receiver tank with automatic drain and one refrigerated air dryer was purchased from Engineering Sales Associates.
A JEM International bagging system comprising one gravity fed open mouth bagging scale with pneumatically operated bag clamps, two-position gate, load cells, and controls along with one variable speed conveyor with paper and woven polypropylene bag sewing system with portable sewing machine head that has adjustable sewing height was purchased from A.R. McKay.
Two corrugated bins with a capacity of 2,950 bushel were purchased from Micada.
The smooth work and ingredients bin are being fabricated by PC Metals Crafters.
Electrical System RequirementsThe majority of motors for major equipment listed above will be 3-phase 480V.
Revised September 2006