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Glossary

A c u t e : sharp pointed, but not long tapering

A d n a t e : fusion of unlike flower parts

A l t e r n a t e :  type of leaf arrangement in which one leaf is attached to each node

A x i l : angle between a stem and a petiole

B e a k : relatively long, thickened point

B e r r y : fleshy or pulpy fruit

B r a c t : small leaf; several-many subtend flowers of the Asteraceae

C a l y x : outer whorl of perianth parts; often green

C a p s u l e : dry fruit of > 2 carpels

C a r p e l : component part of gynoecium

C a t k i n : usually pendant, elongated cluster of flowers

C o m p o u n d : composed of > 2 similar parts

C o n n a t e : fusion of like flower parts

C o r d a t e : with a sinus and rounded at the base; like the notched/rounded part of a valentine; type of leaf base or shape of leaf with notched/rounded base 

C o r o l l a : inner whorl of perianth parts; often colored

C o r y m b : short, relatively flat-topped inflorescence

D i c h o t o m o u s : equally forked

D i s k  f l o w e r s : tubular, perfect flowers of Asteraceae

D i s s e c t e d : deeply divided

D i v i d e d : deeply cut into recognizable divisions

F a s c i c l e : group, cluster

F l o r a l   c u p  ( h y p a n t h i u m ) : cup-shaped structure composed of fused basal parts of sepals, petals, and stamen

G l a b r o u s : lacking hairs, sometimes called "smooth"

I m p e r f e c t : flower with stamen only or carpels only, unisexual flower

I n f e r i o r   o v a r y : positioned below the level at which sepals and petals are attached

I n f l o r e s c e n c e : arrangement of flowers

I r r e g u l a r   f l o w e r : asymmetrical arrangement of parts

L i g u l e : relatively short membrane or row of hairs located on dorsal surface of grass leaves at the point where the leaf blade joins the leaf sheath

L o b e d : recognizable segment; leaf type with segments separated by incisions that extend at least half way from margin to midvein

N o d e : point on a stem where one or more leaves are attached

O p p o s i t e : type of leaf arrangement in which 2 leaves are attached to each node; i.e. leaves are paired along length of stem

P a l m a t e : with parts basally attached to a common point, digitate; palmate veins and palmately compound leaves

P a n i c l e : an inflorescence with an elongated primary axis, secondary branches, and stalked (pedicellate) flowers

P a p p u s : modified calyx of Asteraceae; usually are bristles or scales, sometimes absent

P a r a l l e l : type of leaf venation in which at least the major veins are elongated and nearly parallel

P e r f e c t : individual flower that has both stamen and carpels

P e r i a n t h : calyx plus corolla of individual flower

P i n n a t e : parts attached along an elongated axis; feather-like; pinnate veins and pinnately compound leaves

P r i c k l e : sharp, short, rigid projections from internode regions of stem; usually basally thickened, not as flexible as bristle

P u b e s c e n t : hairy

R a c e m e : type of flower/fruit arrangement; individual flowers/fruits each attached by stalk (pedicel) to an elongated central axis

R a y   f l o w e r : strap-shaped, perfect or imperfect flower of Asteraceae

R e g u l a r : symmetrical arrangement of parts

S a c c a t e : with a sac

S c a p e : aerial, leafless, flowering stem

S i m p l e : type of leaf with 1 blade (instead of several blade segments, leaflets, as in compound leaf type)

S p a d i x : inflorescence type; spike with a fleshy, elongated axis

S p a t h e : a leaf or large bract closely surrounding an inflorescence

S p u r : sac-like projection of a perianth part

S t i p u l e : basal, paired appendages of a leaf; variable in size and shape; Leaves of some species have stipules while those of other species lack stipules.

S t o l o n : above-ground, prostrate stem

S t y l e : part of gynoecium between stigma and ovary; often elongated

S u p e r i o r   o v a r y : positioned above the level at which sepals and petals are attached

T e n d r i l : elongated, twining appendage

T o m e n t o s e : with soft, wooly hairs

T r i f o l i o l a t e : leaf composed of three leaflets

T r u n c a t e : blunt; somewhat squared off

U m b e l : inflorescence with flower stalks (pedicels) originating from common point

V a r i e g a t e d : non-uniformly colored

V i n e : plant that attaches to and/or climbs on structures or a plant with an elongated, prostrate stem

W h o r l e d : arrangement of leaves/flowers/branches in which more than 2 are attached around the perimeter of a stem at individual nodes