Kenneth E. Anderson
Professor, Extension Specialist - Commercial Layer & Small Flock Mgmtken_anderson@ncsu.edu
B. S. (1980) Animal Ind. and Agricultural Ind., Southern Illinois University, Carbondale, IL
M. S. (1987) Poultry Production and Management, Kansas State University, Manhattan, KS
Ph. D. (1990) Poultry Production and Management, Kansas State University, Manhattan, KS
PO 340 Live Poultry and Poultry Product Evaluation, Grading, and Inspection
PO 421 Commercial Egg Production
Pullet and laying hen performance, egg quality, molting and economic return are continuous concerns facing the egg industry of the entire country. I work to influence producer attitudes toward innovative processes or procedures in pullet and hen performance, egg quality, molting, and beak trimming to enhance their ability to compete. Production environments have become a major issue for egg producers with the negative perception of cages favoring enriched colony cages or alternative production environments cage-free and range.
The methods used to wash and package shell eggs can impact the quality of the eggs they provide to consumers. In many cases improvement requires a change in thinking and philosophy of the processor to integrate knowledge for improving the quality of various processes. The "Egg Safety Rule" requires that shell eggs be stored at 45º F within 36 hrs of lay. Also processing has become a topic of importance to egg processors across the country and continues to be today due to the food safety threat of improperly handled eggs. During the last 5 years techniques to facilitate the cooling of shell eggs and maximize the efficiencies of processors current egg cooling facilities have been developed with the cooperation and input from all processors in the state. These techniques have been demonstrated in the field using surveys, trials, demonstrations, educational meetings, newsletters, and popular press articles. This information should be contained in HACCP programs established by the processor himself.
As a member of the Board of Director and faculty of the National Egg Quality School Inc. and of the National Egg Products School there is an opportunity to interact with the industry on a national basis. The mission of both schools is to educate the egg and egg products industry personnel to the concepts and principles used to achieve higher egg quality for the consumer.
Animal Welfare and Management: As the Director of the North Carolina Layer Performance and Management Program and investigator on the associated test, I am provided the tool to address current industry production concerns. This extension program has been ongoing since 1958 in cooperation with the NC Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services along with the Primary Breeders of Commercial Egg Strains. Thirty-eight flocks have been completed and a major facility remodel I underway. The initial purpose of the test was to provide strain evaluations in a common environment to the producers in North Carolina. However, in recent years, the test and the support it provides has given the industry an avenue with which to examine common problems with the housing alternative environments and management of the different strains of leghorns available. There are two other tests in the world but this test is the only one of its type, scope, and distribution remaining in the world. The NCLP&MT reports are sent to all the producers in North Carolina and an additional 230 reports are sent to producers, industry representatives, and academics throughout the US and 16 different countries. In 2012 every report published was posted onto the internet and an historical summary of the first 37 tests was compiled. The primary breeders and egg companies are utilizing the test in increasing intensity to compare and evaluate the strains and the different environments, which are imposed upon them.
Biological Basis for Chemoprevention of Ovarian Cancer: Ovarian cancer is a deadly disease that kills more women than all other gynecological cancers combined. Each year in the United States, 27,000 to 28,000 women are diagnosed with the disease, and 16,000 to 17,000 women will die from it. Despite progress made in treating cancers, most women who contract ovarian cancer will die because diagnosis of the disease is often discovered in an advanced stage. Researchers at North Carolina State University and other medical schools have been shown the chicken to be a viable model due to their high rate of naturally occurring ovarian cancer. The epithelial, or surface, cells of chicken ovaries are similar to the epithelial cells of human ovaries and appear to respond to the hormone progestin the same as those of humans. Hopefully this research will provide methods for early detection and validated a model with which to develop and evaluate therapies for preventing a deadly human cancer. These projects will allow for greater insight into the reproductive mechanisms in gallus domesticus and the maintenance nutritional requirements of a non-ovulating hen.
Molting: The commercial egg industry is being bombarded by animal welfare guidelines, which are being promoted without the use of scientifically supported information. The molting research has resulted in development of a non-anorexic program now used extensively by the industry. Strains requirements vary and research examining alternative molting programs, supplemental nutrition during the molt, feeding regimens pre-molt, during the stress, and post-molt are continuously needed. This work will provide the egg industry with scientific research concerning molting practices and the impact of these practices on the welfare of the laying hen. This information may be used by the industry to educate the businesses concerning this practice and help them differentiate between the theology/philosophy perspective on molting and the reality.
Egg Processing and Safety Program: The North Carolina Egg Industry and consumers need to be assured that egg safety and quality are the highest priority and are dependent on the processing conditions and storage temperature. Consumer perceptions are based upon what they see and hear which can dictate consumption. This program evaluates egg processing methods and cooling always keeping in mind the microbial contamination potential in shell eggs. The Piedmont Research Station, Shell Egg Pilot Processing Center has allowed research on in-line cooling, washing temperatures, and storage modifications to facilitate economically viable egg processing for quality and reduced microbial contamination rates.
Anderson, K. E. and D.R. Jones. 2012. Effect of genetic selection on growth parameters and tonic immobility in Leghorn pullets. Poult. Sci. 91:765-770.
Golden, J.B., D.V. Arbona, and K.E. Anderson, 2012. A Comparative Examination of Rearing Parameters and Layer Production Performance for Brown Egg-Type Pullets Grown for Either Free-Range or Cage Production. J. of Applied Poultry Research 21:95-102.
Anderson, K. E., 2012. Final Report of the Thirty Eighth North Carolina Layer Performance and Management Test. Vol. 38, No.5.April 2012.
Anderson, K.E. 2011. Comparison of fatty acid, cholesterol, and vitamin A and E composition in eggs from hens housed in conventional cage and range production facilities. Poultry Sci. 90: 1600-1609.
Anderson, K.E., 2011. Single Production Cycle Report of the Thirty eighth North Carolina Layer Performance and Management Test. Vol. 38, No.4. November 2011.
Anderson, K.E. 2011. First Cycle Report of the Thirty Eighth North Carolina Layer Performance and Management Test. Vol. 38, No.3. July 2011.