Development of Specialty-type Potatoes
for Eastern NC

 

PROJECT LEADER(S):   Mark Clough, Wilfred “Bill” Jester and Craig Yencho                         

 

LOCATION: Cunningham Research Station in Kinston, Tidewater Research Station in Plymouth, James Brother’s Farm in Weeksville, and McCotter Farms in Bayboro        

 

 

IMPACT


We have identified a purple-skinned, yellow-fleshed specialty-type potato that we believe has great potential for growers interested in raising specialty-type potatoes.  This clone, designated B1816-5, was bred by Dr. Kathy Haynes, USDA-ARS, Beltsville, MD.  We are conducting cooperative research with her and others in NC and elsewhere to evaluate the market potential of B1816-5.  Certified foundation seed of B1816-5 is being increased at Cornell University’s Uihlein Farm in anticipation of variety release.  B1816-5 has been displayed at the Specialty Crops Field Day at the Cuningham Research Station (CRS) since 2002 and has been received favorably each time as it is very attractive and well adapted to NC’s environment.  Fund from the SCP have enabled us to get this clone into the hands of several large and small growers who are evaluating the market potential of this clone and other specialty-type potatoes.  The purple skin and golden flesh color of B1816-5 have a particular attraction to some in eastern NC (e.g. alumni of East Carolina University whose school colors are purple and gold) and we believe that with appropriate marketing this new variety could be readily sold to restaurant chefs and/or those who would typically buy the higher priced gourmet potatoes.  The increased nutritional content of yellow fleshed potatoes (they provide over 40% of the RDA of vitamin C) and the fact that most yellow-fleshed potatoes contain higher levels of lutein, a carotenoid plant pigment that has been shown to reduce the risk of macular degeneration and is thought to reduce the risk of heart disease, can be used to enhance their marketability.  In addition to B1816-5, we are evaluating several other specialty-type potatoes in NC and anticipate that several of these will also be adopted in the future contributing to the diversification of small and large farms in rural eastern NC.

 

INTRODUCTION

 

Potatoes in eastern North Carolina (NC) are currently grown to meet the needs of two very important spring markets.  The first is the chipping industry that comprises roughly 60% of NC’s crop.  The other is the table-stock market comprised of round white and red-skinned table-stock potatoes.  Within the table-stock market there exists a demand for specialty-type gourmet or novelty potatoes to serve not only restaurants, but the individual consumer as well.  The objectives of this research are develop specialty-type potato varieties for use in NC.

 

METHODS

 

Four variety trials (2 on-farm and 2 research station trials) were established to evaluate the performance of conventional table-stock, processing and specialty-type potatoes such as B1816-5.  The CRS SCP trial had 13 clones.  All except two were either purple- or red-skinned table- or specialty-type potatoes.  The NE-1014 Regional Potato Variety Development Project Red Variety Trial (NE-RD) had 24 red and purple varieties.  The James Brother’s trial included 13 white (5 yellow flesh), 1 purple and 4 red clones.  The McCotter trial included 12 whites, 1 purple and 2 red clones.  All trials were planted in a randomized complete block design with 4 replications.  Plots consisted of one row with 28 hills spaced 9 inches apart.  Spacing between rows was 38 inches at all sites, with the exception of the James Brother’s Trial, which was on a 40 inch row spacing.

 

The on-farm trials and the SCP were dug using a single-row digger and hand harvested.  The NE-RD trial was harvested using a two-row harvester modified to dig one row at a time.  Both grower trials were graded using a portable Lockwood Grader which sorts to two grades: A+B’s ≥ 1 7/8”; and C’s < 1 7/8”.  The NE-RD and the SCP were graded to five classes: 1’s < 1 7/8”; 2’s > 1 7/8 to 2 1/2”; 3’s > 2 1/2 to 3 1/4”; 4’s > 3 1/4 to 4”; 5’s > 4”.  Culls were removed and weighed separately in all trials.  Each clone was evaluated for tuber quality and appearance during grading using standardized NE-1014 rating codes.  A description of the rating codes is provided in Appendix 1.

 

RESULTS

 

James Brother’s Variety Trial (Tables 1a and 1b)

Generally, we place our most promising varieties in this trial because growers and allied industry members visit this site in May during the half-day Potato Tour held during the Annual Meeting of the NC Potato Association, held in Elizabeth City.  Because of the diversity of materials in this test (we plant processing, table-stock and specialty-type lines to appeal to a broad audience) three standards for yield are compared: Atlantic (round white processing standard), Chieftain (red table-stock standard), and Yukon Gold (yellow-fleshed specialty-type standard).  The most interesting red-skinned and/or specialty-type clones in this trial were: B1816-5 (purple-skinned, dark yellow flesh); Vivaldi (buff-skinned, yellow flesh); and NY129 (red-skinned, white flesh).  B1816-5, Vivaldi and NY129 had a marketable yield of 239, 170 and 161 cwt/A, respectively.  B1816-5 was given a 7 for overall appearance, while Vivaldi and NY129 were rated 6 and 5, respectively.  None of these clones had any problems with internal heat necrosis (IHN), which can be a significant quality limitation in the mid-Atlantic region.  Overall, from a specialty-crop perspective we were very favorably impressed with the performance of B1816-5 and Vivaldi, and we anticipate that several growers who saw these materials in this trial and elsewhere will try planting them in 2005.  The breeding program is facilitating the distribution of the very limited amounts of seed of B1816-5 at this point.  Vivaldi, a clone developed and marketed by HZPC Americas Corp, Presque Isle, Canada, has arranged to have several growers in the Elizabeth City area to plant 5-10 acres of this clone and they are facilitating marketing.

 

McCotter Farms Variety Trial (Tables 2a and 2b)

Yields in this trial were lower than what we have seen in past years.  This was due, in large measure, to the lack of rainfall throughout the growing season.  B1816-5, MSI005-20Y, ND3196-1R, NY125, NY129, Yukon Gold and Vivaldi were the yellow-fleshed table-stock, red-skinned  and/or specialty-type lines entered in this trial.  From a specialty-crop perspective B1816-5 and Vivaldi were standouts with marketable yields of 169 cwt/A and 178 cwt/A and overall appearance scores of 6 and 8, respectively.  As in the James Brother’s trials, neither of these clones had internal problems.  We were hoping that ND3196-1R might be a good purple-skinned clone, but its yield was low and it had a very poor overall appearance score (3).

 

Specialty Crops Variety Trial at the CRS (Tables 3a and 3b)

This trial was specifically designed to focus on reds, purples, and other specialty-type potatoes that we believe may fill various niche markets in our state.  None of the clones in the trial significantly exceeded the standard yield of Chieftain (157 cwt/A).  Two clones, however, did have greater yields [B1816-5 (171 cwt/A), and La Rouge (179 cwt/A)].  As in the other trials B1816-5 performed very well.  Yukon Gold was assigned the best overall appearance score at a 7, while B1816-6 was rated a 6.  No internal defects were observed in B1816-5, but we did observe a significant amount of silver scurf on this clone, which can be controlled to some extent by seed treatments.  Another interesting clone that was evaluated in this trial was the russet variety Amey.  Amey was recently released by the USDA-ARS in cooperation with several eastern states including NC.  We call Amey a “baby russet” because this variety produces a good crop of small to medium-sized russet potatoes that are very attractive in appearance and very tasty.  We think that there may be a market for this so-called “baby russet” as growers and consumers become more familiar with it.  However, it is worth noting that Amey had the highest percent IHN levels at 10% observed in this trial, but the IHN severity rating was not exceptionally serious with an IHN rating of 8.

 

NE1014 Regional Potato Variety Development Project Red Variety Trial. (Tables 4a and 4b)

Of the twenty-three clones in this trial none of them had a higher marketable yield than the standard Chieftain (177 cwt/A).  But it is important to note that over 53% of the tubers sampled in Chieftain had severe IHN.  NDTX731-1R was the only clone to have an overall appearance rating of 8, while B1816-5 was assigned an appearance score of 5, which was largely due to the presence of silver scurf.  Several other very attractive red-skinned clones were: B2066-3; B2079-6; Dark Red Norland; and ND8089-2R, each of which was assigned an overall appearance rating of 7.  B2066-6 and B2079-6 were selected in Maine during our potato harvest for their ability to produce a crop of small “B-sized” potatoes and they appear to do this very well.  We hope to evaluate them next year in other trials. 

 

 


CONCLUSION

 

The most promising specialty-type potato varieties evaluated during 2004 are listed below with notes on their potential “fit.”

 

B1816-5 (Fig. 1) has an attractive dark purple skin and yellow flesh.  We believe that it has significant potential in NC but growers will need to control silver scurf on it if they are to achieve it’s potential. Silver Scurf is a fugal pathogen on the surface of the potato that does not affect internal quality, but it can detract from appearance.  B1816-5, like many other red- and purple-skinned varieties, is susceptible to silver scurf so this disease is not new to potato producers, especially those accustomed to producing red varieties.  Treatment with a fungicide at planting can minimize the presence of this pathogen.  In 2004 we distributed about 120 lbs to two very different local growers.  Ferebee Farms located in Camden County (a large grower) received 100 lbs and had very positive things to say about B1816-5.  Their farm manager brought it to a restaurant trade show in Chicago, IL where it also received favorable reviews.  Our other grower, Kenneth Waters, is a small grower with a roadside stand near Chocowinity.  He too commented on its quality and the ready acceptance by local consumers.  He noted that a couple of higher end restaurants in the area were interested in using it during 2005.  During 2005, we will have roughly 300 to 400 lbs available and will attempt similar efforts to put small quantities of B1816-5 seed in the hands of growers allowing them to evaluate and develop markets for the clone.

 

Michigan Purple (Fig. 2) was in the CRS SPC trial in 2004.  It is a high yielding purple-skinned, white-fleshed potato.  We consistently rate this clone with a low appearance score, but this is largely due to excessive skinning and its high susceptibility to scab.  Growers (organic and conventional) who take special precautions to minimize skinning and do not have scab problems, and/or home gardeners who hand harvest potatoes might be the appropriate market for this unique potato in NC as it is flavorful, and it’s smooth light purple skin and white flesh are very attractive.

 

Amey (Fig. 3) is an attractive “baby russet” potato intended for table markets.  This variety was released by the USDA-ARS in 2001.  Our program has included this variety in 14 trials since 1995 but only in the SPC trial in 2004.  It is well adapted to NC and has some resistance to Golden Nematode, Powdery Scab, and Common Scab.  In the future we will continue to include this variety as it my have potential in a portion conscious environment, and provide a viable baking alternative to the large russets commonly available in stores.

 

In future trials we intend to continue breeding and selecting new specialty-type lines as well as to look for small “B-sized” reds such as B2066-6 and B2079-6.

 

TABLES & PHOTOS

 

Fig. 1.  B1816-5. A medium to small purple skin yellow flesh potato

 

Fig. 2.  Michigan Purple. A medium large purple skin white flesh potato

 

Fig. 3.  Amey. A medium white flesh russet potato

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 


Table 1a. James Brother's Farm Variety Trial. Total and marketable yield, percentage of total yield by size class, and specific

gravity of potato clones harvested 110 DAP1 (102 DVK1) at James Brother's Farm, Weeksville, Pasquotank Co., NC - 2004.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          

                                                                                                                                                         Size Distribution by Class2                                                                                                

                                 Total Yield                               Marketable Yield                                    (% of total yield)                                 Specific            Chip Color4

Clone                           cwt/A                 cwt/A       % Atl.    %Yukon     %Chieftain       A's + B's                        C's          Culls         Gravity3                                                TRS        Wise

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       

Atlantic                                     304                   279         100         101             154                               91                   7                1              1.067                                                  2            3         

B0766-3                                  299                   272         102         99               156                               91                   7                2              1.065                                                  1            2         

B1240-1                                  219                   201         73           75               108                               92                   7                1              1.051                                                  3            5         

B1806-8                                  269                   223         86           84               127                               81                   16             3              1.063                                                  .             .          

B1816-5                                  303                   239         92           91               133                               75                   23             2              1.062                                                  .             .          

B2135-163                              321                   280         105         99               152                               87                   10             3              1.064                                                  1            2.5     

Cherry Red                              236                   184         67           68               98                                 78                   16             6              1.061                                                  .             .          

Chieftain                                  297                   197         72           73               100                               65                   14             20           1.05                                                  .             .          

Harley Blackwell                    297                   209         78           74               116                               70                   19             11           1.057                                                  1            2.5     

Marcy                                       287                   263         97           97               142                               91                   8                0              1.063                                                  2            3         

NorDonna                               239                   121         42           45               63                                 49                   22             29           1.052                                                  .             .          

NY125                                      330                   273         97           100             149                               82                   14             4              1.062                                                  .             .          

NY126                                      211                   156         59           59               79                                 71                   15             14           1.057                                                  .             .          

NY129                                      234                   161         59           59               96                                 67                   25             7              1.051                                                  .             .          

Snowden                                 253                   206         79           75               115                               80                   17             3              1.059                                                  2            2.5     

Superior                                  265                   229         86           86               130                               86                   13             2              1.065                                                  2            3         

Vivaldi                                      280                   170         57           61               92                                 56                   35             8              1.053                                                  .             .          

Yukon Gold                             311                   284         104         100             158                               91                   7                2              1.067                                                  .             .          

 

Grand Mean                           275                   219                                                                                                                                                                                                                       

CV (%)                                      20                     30                                                                                                                                                                                                                         

LSD (K= 100)                         90.1                  81.8                                                                                                                                                                                                                      

1 DAP = Days After Planting; DVK = Days to Vine Kill                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               

2 Size classes: A's + B's > 1 7/8"; C's ≤ 1 7/8"; Culls = all defective potatoes.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      

3 Determined by weight in air/water method.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        

4 Chip Color Ratings conducted by Wise Foods Inc. and the NCSU potato breeding program at the TRS/VGJREC:                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           

1 = no defects, exceptionally bright; 2 = excellent, bright; 3 = good, light or golden; 4 = dark defects, marginal; 5 = not acceptable.


Table 1b. James Brother's Farm Variety Trial. Plant vine type, disease and air pollution scores, maturity at ca. 3 weeks prior to harvest, external

and internal tuber attributes, of potato clones harvested 110 DAP1 (102 DVK1) at James Bros. Farm, Weeksville, Pasquotank Co., NC-2004

                                                    Plant Data2                                                        Tuber Data2                                                        % Internal Defects3        

Clone                        TYPE  DIS   POLL  MAT          CLR  TXT   TCX  TSS  SHP  EYE  SIZE   DIS   APP            HN      HNR HH  VR     BC                                            SR                Comments4

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    

Atlantic                                   6        8        7          6                7        5        7        7        2        6        6          8        7                  23       8        0    0        0      0                                                MS, SC, SR          

B0766-3                                6        9        8          5                8        5        7        6        2        6        5          8        5                  0          9        0    13     0      0                                                MS, SG, SS          

B1240-1                                5        8        7          6                7        5        5        5        3        7        5          7        6                  0          9        0    0        3      0                                                MS, SC, SS          

B1806-8                                6        8        9          5                7        7        5        4        4        7        4          6        4                  0          9        0    15     0      0                                                ^SR    YF2

B1816-5                                6        8        9          3                1        6        5        6        4        7        5          7        7                  0          9        0    13     0      0                                                MS,GC ~Pts    YF2      

B2135-163                            6        9        8          5                6        6        7        6        2        7        5          7        6                  0          9        0    0        0      0                                                MS, GC, SG, RZ  

Cherry Red                            8        9        9          5                2        5        7        7        2        8        5          .         5                  0          9        0    0        0      0                                                SG, Pts, GC, RZ, FS, MS     

Chieftain                                8        8        8          5                3        7        7        4        3        5        5          7        4                  13       8        0    15     0      0                                                ^ SG, RZ, ^MS, GC     

Harley Blackwell                  6        8        8          6                7        5        7        7        2        7        5          6        5                  0          9        0    10     0      0                                                ^SC, MS, SG        

Marcy                                     7        8        7          7                7        5        7        7        3        8        7          9        8                  3          8.8    0    3        0      0                                                MS   

NorDonna                             6        9        8          5                2        8        5        6        3        7        5          7        4                  0          9        0    8        0      0                                                ^SG, MS   

NY125                                    6        8        9          6                7        7        6        7        4        7        6          8        7                  0          9        0    3        0      0                                                SG, MS YF1         

NY126                                    6        7        8          6                7        6        5        5        3        8        5          8        4                  0          9        0    3        0      0                                                MS, ^ Pts    YF1   

NY129                                    6        8        9          7                2        6        7        7        2        8        5          5        5                  0          9        0    5        0      0                                                IL, MS, GC

Snowden                               6        9        8          7                6        5        5        7        2        5        5          8        5                  0          9        0    0        0      0                                                DAE, DSE, SS, MS, FS        

Superior                                7        8        9          4                7        5        7        7        3        7        5          8        8                  0          9        0    3        0      0                                                GC, MS     

Vivaldi                                    6        8        8          7                7        8        5        7        3        8        4          8        6                  0          9        0    0        0      0                                                ^SG, MS, YF1      

Yukon Gold                           8        9        8          6                7        7        7        5        3        7        6          8        6                  13       8.3    0    0        0      0                                                IL, MS, SG   YF2  

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        

1 DAP = Days After Planting; DVK = Days to Vine Kill                                                                                                                                                      

2 See NE184 Standard Potato Rating System for key to scores in Appendix 2.                                                                                                         

3 Percentage determined from 10 randomly selected potatoes /rep (40 total) in A and B size classes.  HN=heat necrosis; HNR=average heat necrosis rating (Rating Scale: 1= very severe to 9 = absent); HH=hollow heart; VR=vascular ring discoloration; BC=brown center; SR=soft rot

4 See Appendix 2 for Comment Codes


Table 2a. McCotter's Farm Variety Trial. Total and marketable yield, percentage of total yield by size class, specific

gravity and chip scores of potato clones harvested 107 DAP1 at McCotter's Farm, Bayboro, Pamlico Co., NC - 2004

                                                                                                                                                         Size Distribution by Class2                                                                                                

                                 Total Yield                                             Marketable Yield                     (% of total yield)                                  Specific            Chip Color4

Clone                           cwt/A                                     cwt/A                % Atl.      %Yuk      A's + B's                 C's       Culls                Gravity3                                                TRS                                Wise

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              

Atlantic                                     276                                       221                   100         103             80                     11           9                    1.070                                                  2                    3                     

B0766-3                                  240                                       182                   83           85               75                     18           7                    1.066                                                  1                    2                     

B1816-5                                  236                                       169                   79           79               71                     27           1                    1.070                                                  .                     .                      

B2135-163                              304                                       251                   116         117             82                     13           5                    1.069                                                  1                    3.5                 

Marcy                                       309                                       272                   123         127             88                     11           1                    1.070                                                  1                    2                     

MSI005-20Y                           243                                       166                   75           76               67                     31           2                    1.061                                                  .                     .                      

MSJ461-1                               168                                       78                     36           36               45                     52           3                    1.059                                                  3                    5                     

ND3196-1R                            142                                       63                     28           29               44                     32           24                 1.059                                                  .                     .                      

NY125                                      259                                       175                   79           82               68                     31           1                    1.066                                                  .                     .                      

NY126                                      253                                       219                   99           102             87                     13           1                    1.073                                                  .                     .                      

NY129                                      229                                       147                   66           69               64                     34           2                    1.058                                                  .                     .                      

Snowden                                 211                                       137                   61           64               64                     31           5                    1.071                                                  2                    2.5                 

Superior                                  251                                       190                   87           89               74                     21           4                    1.076                                                  2                    4                     

Vivaldi                                      273                                       178                   79           83               63                     36           1                    1.064                                                  .                     .                      

Yukon Gold                             258                                       214                   98           100             83                     9              8                    1.071                                                  .                     .                      

 

Grand Mean                           243                                       178

CV (%)                                      14                                         22

LSD (K= 100)                         47.2                                      53.4

1 DAP = Days After Planting; DVK = Days to Vine Kill                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               

2 Size classes: A's + B's > 1 7/8"; C's ≤ 1 7/8"; Culls = all defective potatoes.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      

3 Determined by weight in air/water method.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        

4 Chip Color Ratings conducted by Wise Foods Inc. and the NCSU potato breeding program at the TRS/VGJREC:                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           

1 = no defects, exceptionally bright; 2 = excellent, bright; 3 = good, light or golden; 4 = dark defects, marginal; 5 = not acceptable.


Table 2b. McCotter's Farm Variety Trial. Plant vine type, disease and air pollution scores, maturity at ca. 3 weeks prior to harvest, and

external and internal tuber attributes of potato clones harvested 107 DAP1 at McCotter's Farm, Bayboro, Pamlico Co., NC - 2004

                                                    Plant Data2                                                        Tuber Data2                                                      % Internal Defects3                                                               

Clone                        TYPE  DIS   POLL  MAT          CLR  TXT   TCX  TSS  SHP  EYE  SIZE   DIS   APP            HN      HNR HH  VR     BC                                            SR                Comments4

                                                                                                                                                           

Atlantic                                 6          8        7          5                7        5        7        8        2        6        6          7        5                23         7.8    5      0      13   0                                               MS, SC, DAE, DSE, GC         

B0766-3                              6          8        6          6                6        6        7        8        2        7        3          5        4                3            8.8    0      0      3      0                                               FS,SC, SS, MS      

B1816-5                              6          8        8          4                1        8        7        8        4        8        3          7        6                0            9        0      0      0      0                                               SISC, MS   YF2      

B2135-163                          6          8        8          4                9        7        7        7        2        8        5          7        7                0            9        0      0      0      8                                               SS, SISC, SR, GC 

Marcy                                   9          8        7          8                7        5        7        6        3        8        7          8        7                0            9        0      0      0      0                                               GC,^ RZ, SR, MS  

MSI005-20Y                       5          9        8          5                6        5        5        7        2        7        3          8        5                0            9        0      0      0      5                                               SS, MS, SR   YF1.5    

MSJ461-1                           6          8        7          5                6        8        7        7        2        7        2          8        4                0            9        0      0      0      3                                               GC, SS        

ND3196-1R                        4          6        8          4                1        8        7        8        2        7        1          3        3                0            9        0      0      5                                              10                 SCB, SS, RZ      

NY125                                  6          9        8          7                9        8        5        7        3        8        3          7        6                0            9        0      0      0      3                                               SS, SR    YF1         

NY126                                  8          8        8          8                6        6        7        7        4        7        7          7        7                0            9        0      0      0      0                                               SS, YF1       

NY129                                  9          9        8          7                3        6        7        7        1        8        2          4        4                0            9        0      0      0      0                                               ^ IL, RZ       

Snowden                             7          8        7          7                6        5        7        7        2        5        3          8        4                0            9        0      0      0      0                                               DSE, MS, FS         

Superior                              9          8        7          5                6        7        7        7        3        6        5          6        5                0            8.8    0      0      0      3                                               ^SR, FS, MS, SS   

Vivaldi                                  8          8        8          6                9        9        7        8        5        8        5          8        8                0            9        0      0      0      0                                               MS        YF1.5        

Yukon Gold                         9          8        8          6                7        8        7        8        3        7        6          6        6                30         7.5    0      0      5      0                                               MS, SR, SS

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        

1 DAP = Days After Planting; DVK = Days to Vine Kill                                                                                                                                                      

2 See NE1014 Standard Potato Rating System for key to scores in Appendix 1.                                                                                                       

3 Percentage determined from 10 randomly selected potatoes /rep (40 total) in A and B size classes.  HN=heat necrosis; HNR=average heat necrosis rating (Rating Scale: 1= very severe to 9 = absent); HH=hollow heart; VR=vascular ring discoloration; BC=brown center; SR=soft rot

4 See Appendix 2 for Comment Codes


Table 3a. Specialty Crops Trial. Total and marketable yield, percentage of total yield by size class, and specific

gravity of potato clones harvested 118 DAP1 at the NCSU/NCDA CRS, Kinston, Lenoir Co., NC - 2004

                                                                                                                                          Size Dist. by Class (%)2                                                                                                                                              

                                    Total Yield                             Marketable Yield                           (% of total yield)                                  1 7/8                2 1/2                                              Specific                       

CLONE                   cwt/A                             cwt/A          % Chieftain              1's     2's     3's     4's    5's    Cull's             to 4"                to 4"                                                                          Gravity3          

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              

Amey                                168                                 122               84                       22       55     17     0        0        5                    72                     17                                                 .                        

B1763-4                          135                                 90                 53                       28       44     19     0        0        10                 63                     19                                                 1.063               

B1816-5                          220                                 171               136                     19       55     22     0        0        4                    77                     22                                                 1.059               

B1952-2                          160                                 115               86                       16       54     19     0        0        11                 73                     19                                                 1.065               

B2079-6                          150                                 80                 52                       46       47     4        0        0        3                    51                     4                                                    1.063               

Chieftain                          219                                 157               100                     23       56     13     0        0        8                    69                     13                                                 1.052               

Cherry Red                      171                                 113               90                       28       60     6        0        0        7                    66                     6                                                    1.068               

Dark Red Norland         152                                 87                 62                       35       48     6        0        0        11                 54                     6                                                    1.051               

La Rouge                        235                                 179               135                     15       50     25     0        0        9                    76                     25                                                 1.053               

Michigan Purple            182                                 144               96                       11       42     36     0        0        11                 78                     36                                                 .                        

NorDonna                       216                                 108               79                       32       48     2        0        0        18                 50                     2                                                    1.049               

NY129                              151                                 98                 75                       28       47     19     0        0        7                    66                     19                                                 1.050               

Yukon Gold                     174                                 135               102                     14       46     32     0        0        8                    78                     32                                                 1.060               

 

Grand Mean                   179                                 123

CV (%)                              28                                   35

LSD (K=100)                  78.2                                74.5

1 DAP = Days After Planting; DVK = Days to Vine Kill                                                                                                                  

2 Size classes: A's + B's > 1 7/8"; C's ≤ 1 7/8"; Culls = all defective potatoes.                                                                        

3 Determined by weight in air/water method.                                                                                                                                     


Table 3b. Specialty Crops Trial. Plant vine type, disease and air pollution scores, maturity at ca. 3 weeks prior to harvest, and external

and internal tuber attributes of potato clones harvested 118 DAP1 at the NCSU/NCDA CRS, Kinston, Lenoir Co., NC - 2004

                                                    Plant Data2                                                        Tuber Data2                                                      % Internal Defects3                                                               

Clone                        TYPE  DIS   POLL  MAT          CLR  TXT   TCX  TSS  SHP  EYE  SIZE   DIS   APP            HN      HNR HH  VR     BC                                            SR                Comments4

                                                                                                                                                           

Amey                                    7          8        8          5                5        3        5        7        6        7        3          7        6                10         8        3      0        3    8                                               ^SR   

B1763-4                              6          8        8          3                1        6        7        7        2        7        5          6        5                0            9        0      0        0                                              10                 SISC, MS, SG, SR      

B1816-5                              6          8        8          3                1        6        5        7        4        8        5          7        6                0            9        0      0        0    3                                               SISC, GC, MS  YF2       

B1952-2                              7          8        8          2                1        7        7        7        2        6        5          7        6                0            9        0      0        0    5                                               GC, SISC, SR, MS

B2079-6                              8          6        8          1                2        7        2        7        2        6        3          7        6                3            8.8    0      0        0    3                                               GC, SISC, SR, SG 

Chieftain                              9          7        8          4                3        7        7        7        2        6        5          7        6                8            8.3    0      0        3    3                                               GC, SS, MS, SISC, SR, SG   

Cherry Red                          6          9        8          3                2        6        7        7        2        6        5          7        5                0            9        0      0        3    3                                               SS, GC, MS, SG, SR    

Dark Red Norland             5          7        7          1                2        7        7        7        2        6        5          6        6                0            9        0      0        0    0                                               IL, SR, RZ, SISC, SS    

La Rouge                            6          8        8          5                3        7        7        7        2        5        5          7        5                3            8.8    0      0        0    0                                               MS, SR, SS, GC, DAE  

Michigan Purple                5          8        8          4                1        8        5        7        3        6        7          5        4                0            9        0      0        0    0                                               ^SISC, SCB, SR, MS, GC

NorDonna                           8          8        8          5                2        7        7        7        2        7        4          6        4                0            8.5    0      0        0    0                                               ^SG, RZ, IL, SISC, SR, MS    

NY129                                  8          8        8          5                2        6        7        7        2        8        5          7        6                3            8.8    0      0        3    0                                               SS, SISC, IL, SR

Yukon Gold                         9          9        8          3                7        7        7        7        2        7        6          6        7                0            9        0      0        5    0                                               SR, GC, MS, SS    

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    

1 DAP = Days After Planting; DVK = Days to Vine Kill                                                                                                                                                      

2 See NE184 Standard Potato Rating System for key to scores in Appendix 2.                                                                                                         

3 Percentage determined from 10 randomly selected potatoes /rep (40 total) in A and B size classes.  HN=heat necrosis; HNR=average heat necrosis rating (Rating Scale: 1= very severe to 9 = absent); HH=hollow heart; VR=vascular ring discoloration; BC=brown center; SR=soft rot

4 See Appendix 2 for Comment Codes


Table 4a. Northeast Collaborators  Red-Skinned Potato Variety Trial. Total and marketable yield, percentage of total yield by size class, and specific                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          

gravity of potato clones harvested 100 DAP1 at the NCSU VGJREC/NCDA TRS, Plymouth, Washington Co., NC - 2004.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           

                                                                                                                                          Size Dist. by Class (%)2                                                                                                                                              

                                    Total Yield                             Marketable Yield                           (% of total yield)                                  1 7/8                2 1/2                                              Specific                       

Clone                      cwt/A                             cwt/A          % Chieftain              1's     2's     3's     4's    5's    Cull's             to 4"                to 4"                                                                          Gravity3          

 

AC Red Island                136                             46                         27                   63       34     0        0        0          3                  34                     0                                                  1.052     

ATND98459-1Ry           173                             107                       61                   17       50     12     0        0          21               62                     12                                               1.049     

B1816-5                          182                             124                       73                   31       64     2        0        0          2                  67                     2                                                  1.057     

B1952-2                          175                             136                       81                   19       64     14     0        0          3                  78                     14                                               1.061     

B2066-3                          132                             65                         38                   50       49     1        0        0          1                  50                     1                                                  1.060     

B2079-6                          134                             66                         39                   50       46     3        0        0          2                  49                     3                                                  1.058     

Cherry Red                      99                               79                         46                   19       63     16     0        0          1                  79                     16                                               1.058     

Chieftain                          243                             177                       100                 16       53     20     0        0          11               73                     20                                               1.052     

Dark Red Norland         149                             112                       66                   23       63     12     0        0          2                  75                     12                                               1.051     

La Rouge                        204                             170                       99                   14       53     30     0        0          3                  83                     30                                               1.050     

Mazama                          152                             103                       59                   30       49     18     0        0          3                  67                     18                                               1.048     

Modoc                             177                             107                       62                   34       50     10     0        0          6                  60                     10                                               1.046     

ND4659-5R                    149                             87                         51                   31       49     9        0        0          11               58                     9                                                  1.051     

ND5002-3R                    114                             76                         48                   32       51     12     0        0          6                  62                     12                                               1.054     

ND6961b-1R                  118                             76                         44                   32       55     10     0        0          4                  64                     10                                               1.058     

ND8082-1R                    99                               58                         33                   12       32     27     1        0          29               59                     28                                               1.027     

ND8083b-1py                 152                             59                         36                   62       36     2        0        0          1                  37                     2                                                  1.061     

ND8089-2R                    93                               56                         33                   29       48     11     0        0          12               59                     11                                               1.044     

NDTX731-1R                 212                             177                       100                 15       51     33     0        0          2                  84                     33                                               1.042     

NorDonna                       172                             56                         33                   26       30     3        0        0          41               33                     3                                                  1.047     

NY129                              184                             143                       84                   11       49     28     0        0          11               77                     28                                               1.045     

W2-8                                84                               27                         17                   64       32     0        0        0          4                  32                     0                                                  1.050     

Wimena                           155                             121                       69                   18       51     28     0        0          3                  78                     28                                               1.040     

 

Grand Mean                   152                             97                                                                                                                                                                     

CV (%)                              20                               27                                                                                                                                                                     

LSD (K=100)                  39.9                            33.8                                                                                                                                                                  

1 DAP = Days After Planting; DVK = Days to Vine Kill                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 

2 Size classes: 1's < 1 7/8"; 2's 1 7/8 to 2 1/2"; 3's 2 1/2 to 3 1/4"; 4's 3 1/4 to 4"; 5's ≥ 4"; Culls = all defective potatoes.                             

3 Determined by weight in air/water method.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  


Table 4b. Northeast Collaborators Trial Red-Skinned Potato Variety Trial. Plant vine type, disease and air pollution scores, maturity at ca. 3weeks prior to harvest,

tuber external and internal attributes of potato clones harvested 100 DAP1 at the NCSU VGJREC/NCDA TRS, Plymouth, Washington Co., NC - 2004.

                                                    Plant Data2                                                        Tuber Data2                                                        % Internal Defects3        

Clone                        TYPE  DIS   POLL  MAT          CLR  TXT   TCX  TSS  SHP  EYE  SIZE   DIS   APP            HN      HNR HH  VR     BC                                            SR                Comments4

 

AC Red Island                      7        8        8          7                3        7        7        7        2        8        2          8        5                5          8.3    0      0        0      0                                                 SISC, MS, SG, SR, SS 

ATND98459-1Ry                 6        7        8          7                3        7        7        5        2        7        3          8        4                0          9        0      0        0      3                                                 ^SG, MS , SS, STST, RZ     

B1816-5                                6        8        9          4                1        6        7        5        4        7        4          8        5                0          9        0      0        0      3                                                 MS, ^SISC, SG    

B1952-2                                6        7        8          3                1        7        5        4        4        6        5          8        6                0          9        0      3        0      3                                                 SISC, RZ, MS, SG, SR 

B2066-3                                5        7        8          5                2        8        6        5        2        8        2          8        7                0          9        0      0        0      5                                                 SS, SISC, SR, MS, GC 

B2079-6                                6        8        8          3                2        7        8        7        1        6        2          7        7                0          9        0      0        0      0                                                 SR, RZ, SISC, STST     

Cherry Red                            7        8        8          3                3        6        5        6        4        8        5          7        5                0          9        0      0        0      5                                                 SR, SISC, RZ       

Chieftain                                7        8        8          5                3        7        5        4        2        5        6          8        4                53       6.8    0      0        0      0                                                 SISC, SS, ^SG     

Dark Red Norland               4        8        8          2                3        7        6        7        3        7        5          8        7                0          9        0      0        0      3                                                 SISC, SR, GC, SG, MS 

La Rouge                              6        8        8          5                3        8        5        3        2        5        7          8        4                0          9        0      0        0      5                                                 DAE, MS, DSE, SG       

Mazama                                6        8        8          5                3        7        7        3        4        7        5          8        6                5          6.5    0      0        0      8                                                 RZ, MS SR, SG, IL, DAE, SS        

Modoc                                   6        8        8          5                3        7        7        5        2        8        5          8        6                3          8.8    0      0        0      3                                                 SG, HS, SS          

ND4659-5R                          6        8        8          4                2        8        7        5        2        7        4          8        6                3          8.8    0      0        0      0                                                 SG, HS, SISC, SS, GC  

ND5002-3R                          6        7        9          7                1        6        6        4        4        7        6          8        5                0          9        0      0        0      5                                                 MS, SG, SISC      

ND6961b-1R                        6        7        8          5                3/6    6        3        5        4        8        5          8        3                0          9        0      0        0      3                                                 RZ, MS, PTS        

ND8082-1R                          8        6        8          8                2        8        7        2        3        8        6          8        3                48       7        0      0        0      8                                                 SG, MS STST, GC, RZ, AC  

ND8083b-1py                       6        8        8          3                3/6    7        7        7        2        8        3          8        6                0          9        0      0        0      8                                                 MS, SR       YF1   

ND8089-2R                          4        8        8          3                2        7        7        6        2        8        5          8        7                3          8.8    0      0        0      0                                                 SR, GC, RZ SISC, STST, MS        

NDTX731-1R                       6        8        8          4                2        6        8        6        1        6        7          8        8                0          9        0      0        0      0                                                 STST, SG, SR, GC        

NorDonna                             6        8        8          4                3        7        7        7        1        8        5          8        3                0          9        0      0        0      0                                                 ^SG, IL, MS, RZ, SR, HS     

NY129                                    8        8        8          7                3        6        9        5        1        7        6          6        5                35       7.5    0      0        0      0                                                 SG, RZ, IL, GC, STST   

W2-8                                      5        8        9          3                2        8        6        7        1        9        2          8        6                0          9        0      0        0      0                                                 SR, MS     

Wimena                                 6        8        8          7                2        8        7        4        3        7        7          8        6                0          9        0      0        0      0                                                 MS, SISC, RZ      

 

1 DAP = Days After Planting; DVK = Days to Vine Kill                                                                                                                                                      

2 See NE184 Standard Potato Rating System for key to scores in Appendix 2.                                                                                                         

3 Percentage determined from 10 randomly selected potatoes /rep (40 total) in size classes 3 and 4.  HN=heat necrosis; HNR=average heat necrosis rating (Rating Scale: 1= very severe to 9 = absent); HH=hollow heart; VR=vascular ring discoloration; BC=brown center; SR=soft rot

4 See Appendix 2 for Comment Codes

 


Appendix 1:  STANDARDIZED NE184 RATING CODES FOR PLANT AND TUBER CHARACTERISTICS

 

Tuber Color                                        Tuber Texture                        Tuber Cross-section

 

1. purple                                                               1. partial russet                  1. very flat

2. red                                                                     2. heavy russet                  2. --

3. pink                                                                   3. moderate russet           3. flat

4. dark brown                                                      4. light russet                       4. --

5. brown                                                                5. netted                               5. intermediate/oval

6. tan/light brown                                               6. slight net                          6. --

7. buff                                                                     7. moderately smooth     7. mostly round

8. white                                                                  8. smooth                             8. --

9. cream                                                               9. very smooth                   9. very round

 

Tuber Skin Set                                               Tuber Shape             Tuber Eye Depth

 

1. very poor                                                         1. very round                       1. -

2 --                                                                          2. mostly round                  2. deep

3. poor                                                                  3. round to oblong             3. +

4 --                                                                          4. mostly oblong                4. -

5. fair                                                                      5. oblong                              5. medium

6 --                                                                          6. oblong to long               6. +

7. good                                                                 7. mostly long                     7. -

8 --                                                                          8. long                                   8. shallow

9. excellent                                                          9. cylindrical                        9. +

 

Tuber Size

(GCY Scale)                                       Tuber Appearance    Tuber Disease Rating

                                                               

1. small                                                                 1. very poor                         1. very severe                   

2. --                                                                         2. --                                         2. --        

3. small-medium                                                3. poor                                  3. severe                             

4. --                                                                         4. --                                         4. --        

5. medium                                                            5. fair                                      5. moderate                       

6. --                                                                         6. --                                         6. borderline                      

7. medium-large                                                7. good                                 7. slight                

8. --                                                                         8. --                                         8. very slight                       

9. large                                                                 9. excellent                          9. none                 

               

                                                            Plant Disease and

Plant Type                                           Pollution Reaction     Maturity

1. decumbent-poor canopy                           1. Dead                                                1. -

2. decumbent-fair canopy                              2. -                                          2. early

3. decumbent-good canopy                         3. severe                              3. +

4. spreading-poor canopy                             4. +                                         4. -

5. spreading-fair canopy                                                5. moderate                        5. medium

6. spreading-good canopy                           6. -                                          6. +

7. upright-poor canopy                                    7. +                                         7. -

8. upright-fair canopy                                       8. slight                                 8. late

9. upright-good canopy                                  9. none                                  9. +

 


Appendix 2:  COMMENT CODES FOR TABLE B

 

AC=air cracks

BR=bruise

CPB=colorado potato beetle

CS=common scab

CT=chain tubers

DAE=deep apical eyes

DSE=deep stolen end

EB=early blight

ECB= European corn borer

EL= enlarged lenticels

FS=fusarium wilt

GC=growth cracks

HI= herbicide injury

HS=heat sprouts;

IL=infected lenticels

LB=late blight

LHD=leaf hopper damage

MS=misshaped tubers

PE=pink eye

PR=pink rot

PLRV=potato leaf roll virus

PTS=very pointed tubers

PS=powdery scab

PVA, PVX, PVY=potato viruses A, X, Y

RF=red flesh (RF scale: 1=light red to 3=dark red)

RZ=Rhizoctonia

SEB=stem end browning

SC = star cracking

SG=secondary growth

SIS=silver scurf

SKN=skins

SS=sun scald

SR=soft rot

STST=sticky stolens

TSWV=Tomato Spotted Wilt Virus

VW=Verticillium wilt

WSTD=weak stand

WW=wire worm

YF=yellow flesh (YF scale: 1=light yellow to 3=dark yellow)

 

Note: ^ before code = high levels; ^^ = very high; ~ = moderate or some